 ## Oscillation Magnetometer

Subject: Physics

#### Overview

Oscillation magnetometer is used to find the magnetic momentum M, of a bar magnet. For this, the period of oscillation of the magnet is noted and its moment of inertia is measured.This note provides us an information on oscillation magnetometer.
##### Oscillation Magnetometer

An oscillation magnetometer consists of a wooden box with glass windows at the front and at the sides as shown in the figure. A glass tube is fixed at the centre of its top surface and a silk thread, attached on a brass torsion head at the top of the tube passed through it. A brass hook is attached at the end of the silk thread on which a bar magnet is placed horizontally. At the bottom surface of the box, a plane mirror is set on which a straight line is scratched as a reference line. Two small glass windows are fixed to observe the oscillation of magnet at the upper wooden. The parallel base is made by two leveling screws at the bottom of the box. The front window can be slided up and down.

Before starting the experiment, the torsion in the silk thread is removed with the help of a brass strip and the scratch line in mirror is set in the magnetic meridian. A small bar magnet is now replaced on the hook symmetrically that initially aligns along the magnetic meridian. If the magnet is slightly deflected in horizontal surface and left it free, it oscillates in the earth’s magnetic field, H. For a small angular displacement q, the torque of the couple acting on the magnet is  $$\tau = MH\sin \: \theta$$

where M is magnetic moment of the bar magnet. The magnet tries to align itself along the field H but due to it’s moment of inertia I, it reaches to next extreme position, Y and returns back to original position, X. So the magnet in the box oscillates about H and its equation of motion is

$$\tau = I\alpha$$

where a is the angular acceleration. Since the torque is restoring, so

\begin{align*} I \alpha &= -MH\sin \: \theta \\ \text {or,} \: \alpha &= \frac {MH\sin \: \theta }{I} \\ I\alpha &= - MH\sin \: \theta \\ \text {or,} \: \alpha &= \frac {MH\sin \: \theta }{I} \\ \text {For a small angle,} \: \sin\: \theta = \theta , \: \text {then} \\ \alpha &= - \frac {MH \: \theta}{I} \\ \end{align*}

As M, H and I are constant, the angular acceleration is directly proportional to the angular displacement q, and this shows that motion of the bar magnet in a uniform magnetic field is angular simple harmonic. Comparing this equation with $\alpha = -\omega ^2\theta$, we have

\begin{align*} \omega ^2 &= \frac {MH}{I} \\ \text {and the period of oscillation is} \:\:\:T &= \frac {2\pi }{\omega } \\ &= 2\pi \sqrt {\frac {I}{MH}} \\end{align*}

Oscillation magnetometer is used to find the magnetic momentum M, of a bar magnet. For this, the period of oscillation of the magnet is noted and its moment of inertia is measured. From the above equation,

\begin{align*} T &= 2\pi \sqrt {\frac {I}{MH}} \\ \text {squaring both sides, we have} \\ T^2 &= 4\pi^2 \frac {I}{MH} \\ \text {or,} \: M &= 4\pi^2 \frac {I}{HT^2} \\\end{align*}

For a bar magnet of breadth b and thickness t , the moment of inertia about the axis passing perpendicularly through its length
$$I = \frac {b^2 + t^2}{12}$$

Getting the values of H and I, and noting the period of oscillation of the bar magnet, the magnetic moment of the magnet and pole strength can be calculated.

To compare magnetic moments of two bar magnets, their time periods are separately measured using the oscillation magnetometer. Let T1 and T2 be the period oscillation of magnets having magnetic moment M1 and M2 respectively. We have

\begin{align*} T_1 &= 2\pi \sqrt {\frac {I_1}{M_1H}} \dots (i)\\ T_2 &= 2\pi \sqrt {\frac {I_2}{M_2H}} \dots (ii) \\ \text {Dividing equation (i) by equation (ii),} \\ \text {we have} \\ \frac {T_1}{T_1} &= \frac {\sqrt {I_1M_2}}{\sqrt {I_2M_1}} \\ \text {and on squaring both sides,} \\ \frac {T_1^2}{T_2^2} &= \frac {I_1M_2}{I_2M_1} \\ \text {or,} \: \frac {M_1}{M_2} &= \frac {I_1T_2^2}{I_2T_1^2} \\ \end{align*}

In this way, we can compare the magnetic moment of two bar magnets.

The period of oscillation T1 of the bar magnet is noted at a place, and then the new period T2 is at an other place with the same magnet and magnetometer. If the horizontal components are H1 and H2 at these places, we have

$$\frac {H_1}{H_2} = \frac {T_2^2}{T_1^2}$$

##### Comparison of magnetic moments of two magnets of different sizes

Suppose two bar magnets of magnetic moment M1 and M2 and moment I1 and I2 respectively. When these magnets are placed over the other magnet with like poles in the same direction, the moment of inerteia of the combination becomes I1+ I2 and magnetic moment M1 + M2. So , the time period is

$$T_1 =2\pi\sqrt {\frac {{I_1 +I_2)}}{M_1 + M_2)H}} \dots (i)$$

When the magnets are combined with unlike poles together, the moment of inertia remains same as before but the magnetic moment becomes M1 – M2 and the period of oscillation is

\begin{align*} T_2 &= 2\pi \sqrt {\frac {(I_1 + I_2)}{(m_1 – M_2)H}} \dots (ii) \\ \text {Dividing equation} : (i) \: \text {by} \: (ii),\text {we get} \\ \frac {T_1}{T_2} &= \sqrt {\frac {(M_1 –M_2)}{(M_1 + M_2)}} \\ \text {and on solving this equation,} \\ \text {we have}\\ \frac {M_1}{M_2} &= \frac {T_1^2 + T_2^2}{T_2^2-T_1^2} \\ \end{align*}

Putting the value of T1 and T2 the ratio of M1 and M2 is calculated.

Reference

Manu Kumar Khatry, Manoj Kumar Thapa, Bhesha Raj Adhikari, Arjun Kumar Gautam, Parashu Ram Poudel.Principle of Physics. Kathmandu: Ayam publication PVT LTD, 2010.

S.K. Gautam, J.M. Pradhan. A text Book of Physics. Kathmandu: Surya Publication, 2003.

##### Things to remember

Oscillation magnetometer is used to find the magnetic momentum M, of a bar magnet. For this, the period of oscillation of the magnet is noted and its moment of inertia is measured.

Oscillation magnetometer is used to find the magnetic momentum M, of a bar magnet.

To compare magnetic moments of two bar magnets, their time periods are separately measured using the oscillation magnetometer.

When these magnets are placed over the other magnet with like poles in the same direction, the moment of inertia of the combination becomes I1+ I2 and magnetic moment M1 + M2.

When the magnets are combined with unlike poles together, the moment of inertia remains same as before but the magnetic moment becomes M1 – M2.

• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.