Broadcast media such as radio television and online has their own kind of skills and techniques to prepare news writing. It mostly uses news update which is called news bulletins. Online journalism also uses news bulletins but less than television and radio. The widespread use of internet all over the world created a unique opportunity to create meeting place for both sides in many conflicts. These broadcast media are the aggregates of every news content.
Those short news reports that are presented through broadcast media like radio and television is called news bulletin. In mid 17th century, the term ‘bulletin’ was derived from Italian word bulletin and used to refer an official warrant in European countries. In journalism, news bulletin has a very important role as they are transmitted several of times.
Similarly, various events are occurring within a second in the world, so broadcast media have to be up to date with that news which is also called news bulletins. In other words, it is news update. It helps to summarize the news and is shown in the television and radio for few minutes at the top of the hour. In every interval of time radio or television broadcast such news bulletins. They do not inform the whole news story but they give the ideas about the news. Every F.M and television deliver their own news bulletins.
Such news bulletins cover more or less than 5 news items at a time. They should not be lengthy that is it must consist maximum 100 words. There should be the use of active voice, present tense, familiar, simple and non-formal language while writing news bulletins. It should consist direct sentences with simple and short words. While delivering in such bulletin news, the news presenter must speak out in a gentle and polite manner. They should use single breath to read a single sentence. It is not necessary that every news bulletin may consist of 5W1H. The news presenter must repeat the sentences while delivering important news so that audience does not have to miss the news single news story.
Preparing materials to be broadcasted
News writing for Radio
Radio journalism has the features of storytelling and conversation style. It can easily talk to the individual rather than a mass audience. While delivering news report through radio it should give priorities to short and informal language in order to flow the information one after another.
Story length: The stories of radio broadcast must be brief and condensed so that audience could understand when it is read for the first time. The longest story in the entire newscast will be only shorter than one minute.
Marking copy: Marking copy is basically done for the easy reading. This includes greater emphasis to the word, double space, typing on one side of the page, one-inch margins, no abbreviations proper pronunciation and so on.
Positioning of the stories: Journalists have to make a decision about where the news story is to be placed. The lead story is kept at first so that it attracts the audience. The journalists play the role of ‘gatekeeping’ as they decide what stories to keep and what should be cut off.
Headlines: Good headlines are to grab the attention of the audience so it is necessary to broadcast worthy news headline. It is only a few second long are told at the top of the newscast.
Repetition of stories: In a radio, broadcast news can be read all day and night when they are released. But words and sentences are bit changed so that their audience do not get bored. It is done through rewriting based on news value.
News writing for Television
Television can broadcast both audio and visual news reports so it is considered to be the powerful media. In order make news writing is television a journalist must have the technical knowledge of synchronizing. Here, are some tips for writing news for television:
You can only talk for as long as you have images: In television stories or news are being told with the presentation of images and videos. So it is necessary to speak up until the image is shown on the screen.
Don’t expect your audience to read the super: It is not possible that television could put up a super or subtitles. Similarly, no one knows how many audiences go through it if it is kept too.
Images speak louder than words: It is always necessary to select such pictures which have got high news value because pictures are worth to 1000 words. And the news story should compliment to the visuals.
But avoid cliché: In the news story, different jargons and homonym should be removed because it distracts the audience.
Timing matters: It is necessary to be time conscious while showing any pictures because it need to be turned along with the sentences that you speak up.
Don’t forget sound: Television can broadcast both audio and video. As a picture speaks itself it is necessary to give priority to the audio. Both should complement each other.
But above all you are delivering the news: It is necessary check out whether sequence and script timing were presented naturally or not. It is not necessary to cover the 5W1H always but it is necessary to evaluate your own job at once.
News writing for Online
The news writing of online is different from that of print news writing. Therefore journalist must be aware of such differences. Online news writing involves all the natures of both print broadcast and public relation. Journalists who are involved in online journalism are free of the deadline for writing their news. They even have their own link for different source materials. They have the different multimedia technology for transmission of news. Here are some tips for online writing:
Know your audience: It is necessary for the online journalists to know about the audience interest. So that they can attract the more viewers than that of other media. Online journalism also has a global reach for the content of news published.
Think first and think different: Online journalism should be more creative on the content of news writing. It can use various features such as audio, video, graphics, text and so on for such kind of reporting journalists most develop the plan for gathering elements of news stories.
Tailor your new gathering: Online journalism should gather such news element that gives a complement to different images, audio, and video with words. They must gather news that would be more educative, informative and entertaining. It is different than that of television and radio.
Write lively and tight: Writing for the online media should be tighter and clear than print media. It should be educative and detailed than that of broadcast writing. Good online news writing should be simple, declarative and more like conversational style avoiding long clauses and passive writing.
Short but sweet: The best guideline tells that stories of online should be told in at least 800 words. But it is not compulsion it can be more or less than 800 too. it should be short and simple.
Break it up: In online journalism larger blocks of text should be made simple as it becomes complex for the reader. It should use more subheads and more on separate bulletins. It should be easier and faster to read.
Introduction to Online Journalism
Online journalism is the dissemination information via the internet media. Different organization running radio, television, newspaper etc are even delivering information through their own website in online. Some organizations use the web for the exclusive content. The internet has challenged traditional ways of journalism. Internet has unlimited numbers of viewers as a result organizations may lose their targeted interests on them. Internet forums, discussion boards, and chats are the internet version of official media. They are the significant tools of online journalism. Now, the internet has created a unique opportunity for the common interaction and helped for the globalization. It is a common medium for people from the different world for sharing news, views, feedback and aggregates which are consists news from different websites into one; for instance Google News.
Prasaran Patrakarita: Hate Kitab (selected topics) Nepal Press Institute, 1997.
Mass Media Laws and Regulations in Nepal.
Visho Suchana tatha Sanchar Pranali Ka Naya Ayama haru , Nepal press institute.
The Constitution of Nepal(selected topics). (2047)
Things to remember
Broadcast media's news update is called news bulletins.
Online journalism is defined as the reporting of facts produced and distributed through the internet.
Radio journalsim needs to be more understandable and uncomplicated.
Television is the most powerful medium available to newsmakers.
It includes every relationship which established among the people.
There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.