Broadcasting is considered to be the most advanced form of communication. It includes all kind of broadcasting media such as radio, television and online. It is the process of distributing audio or video to a number of recipients. Such broadcast media has different types of journalism such as radio, television and online. It also needs reporting skills which is significantly different and more technical. Editing of broadcast journalism is even more professional to be practices.
The word “broadcast” simply means dissemination of information to the large range or area for instance television as well as radio can deliver the information for thousands of people living in a different geography and location. All the technologies of media are run by the electronic mechanism so it is called electronic media, such as film, the internet, and documentaries and so on.
Broadcast is formed or composed of two words that are ‘Broad’ and ‘Cast’. Here broadly refers to wide and cast refers to throw. Altogether it means the process of throwing something widely. So, broadcasting is a process of making and delivering radio and television programmed. It is a process providing programs to the large group of recipients. Radio was the first broadcast media developed in the human history by the Italian scientist called Guglielmo Marconi. In the previous days broadcast was mainly related to the radio and television but nowadays the term has become very complex and it even includes the internet, which is called webcasting. It is more immediate, quick advance and lives than print media.
The Era of Broadcasting
Broadcasting is a most significant revolution in the communication of the twentieth century. The first invention of broadcast media is the radio which was known as wireless telegraphy and wireless telephony that transmit the information to different areas. The history of broadcasting was begun from Britain in between 1909 and 1927, now it has been established in different parts of the world. In the beginning of broadcasting era, there was the transmission of only dots and dashes. Now the radio, television, and the internet are the major eras of broadcasting.
Natures of Broadcast Journalism
Radio is the fastest broadcast media that transmits the news from a very long run. It covers the important issues and public events on a daily basis. With the help of use of high quality, cassette recorder, radio reporters are making natural sound and interviews which provide greater information to their reports. BBC radio (1922) and voice of America 1942 have played the important role to strengthen and spread the radio journalism. Likewise, China Radio International (CRI) and All India and Radio (AIR) have a large role in popularizing radio journalism. Radio journalism was flourished with the establishment of Nepal Radio in 1951. After that private radio journalism was started by Community Radio Sagarmatha F.M 102.4 MHz since 1997 in Nepal and South Asia. This journalism is more effective for it quick and cheap service which can be carried out without any barrier.
Television as a broadcast media has successfully played the role of spreading journalism through the broadcast events as Watergate news, sensational, criminal trials, television and so on. Television reports are often considered to be the important source of news in the time of crisis. The invention of cable channels in the United States since the mid-1970s has given greater strength to regulate a variety of news channels. Television journalism can offer to live as well as unedited audio visual of different coverage and interview. Nepal television was the primary means of flourishing television journalism in the case of Nepal that has developed the professional journalistic practice. Since 2000 A.D different programmers’ were launched by the private television stations.
Reporting in Broadcast Media
Broadcast media requires excessively technical reporting than other media. A reporter who is assigned to print media prepare their news reports either weeklies or periodical since they have lengthier deadlines. It means they prepare their report for just one time a day.
On the other hand in broadcast media, the reporter prepares their news report according to the bulletin schedule. No matter the news story might be the same throughout the day. But newspaper covers one story only for that particular day since the newspaper is published only another day. Moreover, broadcast journalists have to prepare all the news report throughout the day and night. They must be up to date with information in order to cover the news bulletin for time and again. There is a massive work pressure in broadcast media than print media because it deals with what happened in five minutes ago and what impacts it has in next five minutes.
While reporting in broadcast media it is very necessary to be aware of the target audience, programmed, expenses and times. These factors have a direct impact on broadcast media.
Some similarities and differences between print and broadcast media:
Some elements such as news story, news source, news values, and writing styles and so on are shared by both broadcast and print journalism.
Sometimes they even deliver the same kinds of news events or incident in a different way.
Radio uses simple short and brief descriptive sentences so that everyone can easily understand. It even repeats news bulletins time and again.
But television uses fewer words than radio as video and audio speak them.
Online is even more advanced than other broadcast media as it has many more features in it.
News reporting varies as a news report is a report published one time a day in print media but in broadcast media, it is done all day and night.
There is variation in the submission of news reporting. News report is submitted in fixed deadline in print media whereas it is submitted in several deadlines in broadcast media.
There is also a difference in the requirement of skills according to media. Such as news writing skill for print media, speaking skill for radio and presenting skill for television.
News editing for Broadcast Media
Editing for Radio
While delivering information through radio it is necessary to use active voice, present tense, and formal language.
There should not be the use of long sentences that confuse the audience rather should use the short sentences.
The motion of speaking should slow and steady such as 3 words per second.
Too many figures might confuse the audiences.
Leads that are jumbled and overcrowded should be completely avoided.
The story should be carefully repeated so that audience would not miss the single story.
Newsreader must use the punctuation in order to emphasize on the important news.
In order make natural reading one may use the different abbreviation.
Editing for Television
In television audiences can see the video and audio both so it is better to use minimum words.
It is necessary to select only suitable video and audio that resembles the news story.
It is important to watch and listen carefully both video and audio before writing news for the television.
It is necessary to read the entire news story loudly so that everyone can hear it clearly.
It is necessary to maintained time as per the visual clips such as long visual clips require more sentences and short video requires few words.
The words should be selected properly. Subordinate clause, jargons should not be used whereas abbreviation and short sentences can be used.
One can avoid adjectives, epithets and repetition instead can use synonyms.
It is better not to use homonym or pun.
It is necessary that every news is written as per the viewer perspective.
Prasaran Patrakarita: Hate Kitab (selected topics) Nepal Press Institute, 1997.
Mass Media Laws and Regulations in Nepal.
Visho Suchana tatha Sanchar Pranali Ka Naya Ayama haru , Nepal press institute.
The Constitution of Nepal(selected topics). (2047)
Things to remember
Broadcasting is the business of making and sending out radio and television programme.
Broadcast journalist has to be prepared for the news almost 24 hours; reporting updated information time to time to cover the frequent news bulletins.
News editing in broadcast media is more technical than print media.
Broadcasting is a most significant revolution in the communication of the twentieth century.
It includes every relationship which established among the people.
There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.