Fermented Drinks

Subject: Hotel Management

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Wine is a fermented alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermented juice of freshly collected or gathered grapes. Broadly wines are classified into three types. They are: stilled wine, sparkling wine and fortified wine. Beer is brewed and fermented alcoholic beverage obtained from malted barley and other starchy cereals, flavored by hops.
Fermented Drinks


Wine is a fermented alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermented juice of freshly collected or gathered grapes. It can also be made using fruits, flower petals, etc. it is prepared by crushing the fruit and fermenting its juices. They are classified on the basis of color, taste and the aroma present in it.

Types of wine

Broadly wines can be classified into three types.

1. Still wine
still wine(source:stonehauswinery.com467 × 174)
Fig: Still wine (source: stonehauswinery.com)

It is also known as table wine or dinner wine. It is the wine which is obtained by natural fermentation process without adding anything else to it. Stilled wines don’t contain carbon dioxide. While preparing these wines, the carbon dioxide produced during fermentation is allowed to escape and then is filled in wine bottles. The alcoholic strength is normal between 10 to 14%. These are basically classified by their color as follows:

  • Red wine: These wines are made by using black grapes. The skin is allowed to remain in the fermenting must (grape juice) as the coloring pigment present in the skin gives the color to the wine. By, following this method the red color is obtained. Red wines are best served at room temperature, i.e. 60°F to 65°F

  • White wine: These wines are made using green and as well as black grapes. If the wine is made using black grapes, the skin of grapes should be removed before crushing. The skin is removed to prevent the wine from getting colored and thus white colored wine is obtained. White wine is served chilled at 8°C to 9°C.

  • Rose wine: These wines are made using black grapes. They are even produced from the mixture of black and green grapes. These wines are described as light wines or pink wines. The skin is allowed to macerate in the must until the desired color is obtained. Rose wine is served chilled at 8°C to 9°C.
2. Sparkling wine
sparkling wine(source:www.tizianowine.com660 × 433)
Fig: Sparkling wine (source:www.tizianowine.com)

Sparkling wines are the wines which contain carbon dioxide. Any wine can be made sparkling wine by adding carbon dioxide under pressure. However, sparkling wines are made by re-fermentation. The already fermented wine is re-fermented by the addition of yeast and sugar with resulting carbon dioxide trapped inside the bottle.

The alcohol present in the wine is between 10 to 13%. The glass bottles used in sparkling wine has to be thick to withstand the pressure of the gas present behind the cork. Best of sparkling wine is Champagne. All sparkling wines are not called champagnes, it is known as champagne only when it is made in the Champagne region (in France) by using the method’ champagne. Sparkling wine is served chilled at 6°C to 8°C.

3. Fortified wine
Fortified wine(source:epicureandculture.com670 × 376)
Fig: Fortified wine (source:epicureandculture.com)

Fortified wines are the wines to which brandy is added. This process increases the alcoholic strength. It contains 15 to 24% of alcohol. It stops fermentation and it increases wine self-life. Best known fortified wines are Sherry, Masala, Port, and Maderia. These drinks are served both as pre meal and post meal. Hence, fortified wines are classified into two categories:

  1. Aperitif Wines (dry fortified wines) - e.g. Sherry, Port , Maderia. (Aromatized wines: these wines are also called aperitif wines and prepared with the addition of brandy or natural spirits and flavored with herbs, barks, and other flavors. E.g.: Vermouth.
  2. Dessert Wines (sweet fortified wines) – e.g. Marsala, Magala, etc.


beer(source:www.beercanada.com960 × 470)
Fig: Beer (source:www.beercanada.com)
Beer is brewed and fermented alcoholic beverage obtained from malted barley and other starchy cereals, flavored by hops. Any cereals containing starch as maize, rice, corn or wheat can be used to make beer. The alcohol content in beer is between 4 to 10%. The main ingredients used in the manufacture of beer are malted barley, sugar, hops, yeast, and water.

Although barley is the most commonly used grain in beer making, many brewers use additional grains, such as wheat, oats or rye, to imbue their beer with different flavors. However, barley is used often as it is not very helpful to yeast in breaking down the sugar into alcohol. The hops impart the bitterness, sourness aroma and fine forth to the beer.

Beer making process

The following process is involved in beer making:

  1. Brewing: The crushed malted barley is mixed with the warm water. The solution obtained from this brew is called “wort” which is cooled at 16°C and the process takes for 10-12 hours. Hops are added to the wort to give flavor to the beer.

  2. Fermentation: It takes place after brewing for more than a week with the addition of special yeast called “brewer’s yeast” to the wort, which splits the sugar in the malt to alcohol and Carbon dioxide gas.

  3. Racking: After 36 hrs in the fermenting vessel, the wort is run off into the fermenting squares where the surplus yeast is skimmed off.

  4. Maturing: In this step, the beer is stored in a cask/ kegs/ tanks for 3-4 months. The beer gets its color kegs in which it is matured.

  5. Finning: The gelatin made from the bladder of sturgeon fish is now added to the beer as a fining to clarify it. Beer is filtered to give it brilliance and allowed to settle.

  6. Bottling: Beer is now tested for quality and consistency. Fortification might be done to obtain the desired quality and then bottled for sale.

Classification of beer

Beer is categorized depending upon its fermentation and storing process. Following are some types of beer:

  • Lager Beer
  • Ale beer
  • Porter beer
  • Stout Beer
  • Draft Beer
  • Diet Beer

Some popular brands of beer are:


Brand Names

Country of Origin


Tuborg/ Carlsberg












Kingfisher, Haywards






Guinness, Porter, London’s Pride






San Miguel



Coors/ Budweiser, Bocks









Star, Iceberg, Gorkha, Nepal Ice


How to serve beer?

  • Beer should be served at an appropriate temperature of 8- 10°C with a fine fourth or head on it.
  • A good quality beer should have fourth clinging to the inside of glass.
  • Always a small quantity of foam should be created along beer as in some countries people do not like forth.
  • When pouring a bottle of beer, it should be poured down into the glass which is held at a slight angle. It is especially important when a beer works a lot and they produce a large head quickly.
  • All glasses to be used should be spotlessly clean. Pouring beer into a dirty glass will cause it go flat quickly.

Beer & glasses:

  • Beer mug/ dimple – for all types of beer.
  • Beer goblets – for all types of beer.
  • Tankard- for draft beer
  • Pilsner
  • Worthington


Source: www.delicious-japan.com
Source: www.delicious-japan.com

Sake is a Japanese fermented drink which is obtained from their main crop rice.


Joshi, Basant Prasad et.al., Fundamentals of Hotel Management-XII, Sukunda Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu

Bhandari, Saroj Sing et.al., Principle of Hotel Management-XII, Asmita Publication, Kathmandu

Oli, Gopal Singh et.al., Hotel Management Principle and practices-XII, Buddha Prakashan, Kathmandu

Things to remember
  1. The alcoholic strength of still wine is normally between 10 to 14%.
  2. The alcohol present in the sparkling wine is between 10 to 13%.
  3. Fortified wines contain 15 to 24% of alcohol.
  4. The alcohol content in beer is between 4 to 10%.
  5. Sake is a Japanese fermented drink which is obtained from their main crop rice.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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