Multimedia, Areas of Cyber Law and IT policy in Nepal

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This note is about the Multimedia, Areas of Cyber Law and IT policy in Nepal. This note describes about the different multi-media contents that are used by the people at present day like audio, video, graphics, etc. for communication. It also describes the different areas where the cyber law can be applied. It also provides the overview about the IT policies in Nepal and the vision of IT Policies.
Multimedia, Areas of Cyber Law and IT policy in Nepal

Introduction of Multimedia

We know that a vehicle for communication is known as the medium. It can be speech or still picture. The vehicles of communication that use some combination of speech, text, still graphics, animation, moving pictures and sound are known as multimedia. From this definition, we can say that any TV show is the multimedia experience.


A multimedia has a characteristic feature of interactive. In interactive multimedia, users can choose their own path through the presentation. The interactive multimedia has helped to make World Wide Web popular. Most web pages include graphics along with the text and may of theme offer animations, videos, and sounds.

Multimedia Hardware

The multimedia hardware basically integrates with the sound, graphics and picture. Hence, we need to have a sound card, a speaker as output & a CD-ROM drive. These components are readily available these days which were very expensive as they were manufactured some years back.

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The other equipment that you need is pen-based graphics tablet, stereo, microphones, a digital camera and a video adaptor. If you enjoy playing games, you will want a 3D video accelerator, which is an add-on video adapter that works with your video card. For 3D sound, you will need a sound card capable of reproducing these sounds.

Multimedia Applications

Multimedia is used for any computer application in which text alone does not work. Multimedia has become a prerequisite for computer games of all kinds. Its use is growing in computer-based education (CBE) and computer based training (CBT).

In business, multimedia is finding its way into information kiosks (automated presentation systems used for public information or employee training) and even in corporate databases.


Many commercial applications programs allow a user to incorporate multimedia elements. The Adobe Acrobat Program allows a user to create platform-independent documents (PDF) that contain text, graphics, video and sound using the Quick Time video format. Since, a computer can work with art, graphics, sound, text, animation, etc., it contains the huge number of bytes to be stored in the files.

The size of a file can be in terms of many megabytes. For this reasons, many multimedia application software use compression / decompression algorithms called codes while creating multimedia files.

The multimedia applications can be categorized into the following groups:

  1. Paint programs format such as:
  • Bit Mapped Graphics (BMP) or Windows Bitmap
  • Graphics Interchange Format (GIF)
  • Joint Photographic Experts (JPEG)
  • Portable Network Graphics (PNG)

  1. Image Editors or Software such as:
  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Photo Deluxe
  1. Drawing Programs or Software such as:
  • Macromedia Freehand
  • Adobe Illustrator
  1. Video Editors Software and format such as:
  • Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG-2 Format)
  • Quick Time (Format)
  • Video for Windows (AVI Format)
  • Adobe Premier Software
  • Video Vision Studio Software
  • Video Vision ML Software
  • Avid Cinema Software
  • Fusion Recorder Software
  • Maya Software
  1. Audio Software and format such as:
  • Mp3 format
  • Sun/Next (AU) Sounds
  • Microsoft Windows WAV sounds format
  • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) format
  • Sound Forge (Sound Editor)
  • Sound Edit (Sound Editor)
  • Multimedia Deck (Sound Editor)

Creating Multimedia

The process of creating multimedia work involves several steps. Some of the important steps are listed below.

  1. Planning the work
  2. Creating the elements to be included in the work
  3. Combining the elements to create the work
  4. Testing, evaluating and refining the work
  5. Writing the work to a portable storage medium such as a CD-ROM or posting the work on the web.

There are three common ways to organizing or planning the multimedia work. They are:

1. Sequential Page-based Multimedia

The work can be a sequence of pages of slides, appearing one after the other that contains various elements such as text, sound, still graphics and video. Such work is appropriate for any applications in which the order of presentation of material is set. Examples of such type are the sales presentation, lecture, etc.

2. Hypertext Page-based Multimedia

The work can be set of pages containing links that the user can follow his interest. The user can generally move from page to page that shows graphics, sound, video and animation.

3. Movie-based Multimedia

The work can be movie or series of movies that stop from time to time to enable the user to follow a link.

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality (VR) refers to the creation of an immersive, three –dimensional world that appears where we can actually go inside and explore it. Virtual reality environments are lots of fun. You use navigation control that enables you to walk or fly in the simulated world.

But, virtual reality comes into its own when you don a head –mounted display (HDM), a helmet-like contraption equipped with stereo LCD displays. You can then physically explore what appears to be a complex virtual environment, even though you are really walking around in a big, empty room.


The most advanced immersive technology to data is the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), which projects stereo images on a wall to give the illusion of virtual environment.

The virtual reality can be created in the World Wide by means of the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML, pronounced as via-mal).

Computer Games

Computer games are fantastic. It is noticed that the computer games were started in the 1970s, when the earliest computer video games such as Pond appeared in the bars and gaming arcades.

The video games came to the living rooms with the advent of Atari, Nintendo and Sega console game players which are special –purpose computers. Games soon migrated to the personal computers and from there, to the internet.



IT technology means the technology which provides different types of data and information about the concerned things to the people. In this new generation, IT plays an very important role in each and every country. For the development of country, IT technology is very important. So, country like America, Japan, China, etc. are the example who are able to develop with the help of this technology.

By the help of this technology, country can introduce and discover many things. The IT policy was adopted by Nepal in 2002 AD. (2057 B.S) to define the visin, background, objectives and strategies of computer education in Nepal. The main vision of IT policy of Nepal 2002 A.D. is to Place Nepal on the global map of Information Technology .IT policy helps to make information technology accessible to the general public and increase employment through this means. Not only this, it helps to build knowledge based society too.

The policies to be pursued for the implementation of the above-mentioned strategies shall be as follows:

  • To declare information technology sectors a prioritized sector.
  • To follow a single-door system for the development of information technology.
  • To prioritize research and development of information technology.
  • To create a conducive environment that will attract investment in the private sector, keeping in view the private sector's role in the development of information technology.
  • To provide internet facilities to all Village Development committees of the country in phases.
  • To render assistance to educational institutions and encourage native and foreign training as a necessity of fulfilling the requirement of qualified manpower in various fields pertaining to information technology.
  • To computerize the records of each governmental office and build websites for them for the flow of information.
  • To increase the use of computers in the private sector.
  • To develop physical and virtual information technology park in various places with the private sector's participation for the development of information technology.
  • To use information technology to promote e-commerce, e-education, e-health, among others, and to transfer technology in rural areas.
  • To establish National Information Technology Centre.
  • To establish a national level fund by mobilizing the resources obtained from His Majesty's Government, donor agencies, and private sectors so as to contribute to research and development of information technology and other activities pertaining to it.
  • To establish venture capital funds with the joint participation of public and private sectors.
  • To include computer education in the curriculum from the school level and broaden its scope.
  • To establish Nepal in the global market through the use of information technology.
  • To draft necessary laws that provides legal sanctions to the use of information technology.
  • To gradually use information technology in all types of governmental activities and provide legal sanctions to its uses in such activities.


Privacy, in information technology, means to maintan the privacyof inforamtion or datas of a particular organization or individual. So, information or data privacy means the ability of an individual or organization to maintain the security of information or data from the access of third party or unauthorized access, theft, etc.Information privacy or data privacy is related to different data types like:

  • Internet privacy (online privacy)
  • Financial privacy
  • Medical privacy

Anonymity means hiding one's identity from others or not revealing one's real identity to other people. So, anonymity, in information technology, meanstoenable internet users to maintain a level of privacy that prevents the collection of identifying information such as the IP address.


Cyber law is the law that is implemented to contol the different crimes that are occurred by the use of computers. So, the different areas that the cyber law can be applied are as follows:

  • Computer Crime

Computer crimeis an illegal activities carried out by the use of computers by the individuals who has a good knowledge about the computer. Alternatively, computer crime is also known ascyber crime, e-crime, electronic crimeor hi-tech crime.Computer crime is an act performed by a knowledgeable computer user, sometimes referred to as a hackerthat illegally browses or steals a company's or individual's private information. So, cyber law can be implemented to control the computer crimes.

  • Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property are the works done by the own creativity of an individual or the creation of mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs and symbols, names and images used in commerce. It includes copyrights, patents, trademark and industrial design. So, cyber law helps to protect the Intellectual Property Rights from being copied, theft, etc.

  • Searching and seizing computers

There are different crimes that occur by the use of computers like hacking, cracking, theft of private datas, etc. So, cyber law helps to track the IP address of the computers that does crimes and cyber law also helps in seizing those computers.

  • Cyberstalking

Cyberstalking, simply put, is online stalking. It can be defined as the crime which is done by the repeated use of technology, particularly the Internet, to harass or frighten someone. Common characteristics include false accusations, monitoring, threats, identity theft, and data destruction or manipulation. This cyber law has helped to find the stalkers and punish them and also helps the victims to protect them from stalkers.

  • Data Protection and Privacy

Data protection and privacy means the proper maintenance of secuity of information or data drom being theft or from the unauthorized access. So, cyber law also helps the people to maintain the proper security of data and punish those people who enters into other's system without the permission or authority of the organization.


Khanal, R.C. Khanal, R.C. Computer Concept for XII. Pashupatigriha Marga, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal: Ekta Books Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2010. 110-112.

Adhikari, Deepak Kumar.,, Computer Science XII,Asia Publication Pvt.Ltd

Things to remember
  1. Multimedia is defined as the combination of text, graphics, sound, motion and animation in a single environment it used in education, training, virtual reality, games, motion pictures, etc.
  2. Virtual Reality refers to the creation of an immersive, three-dimensional world that appears as if you can actually go inside and explore it.
  3. Computer games are the visual graphics software that is designed to have entertainment.
  4. The IT policy was adopted by Nepal in 2002 AD. (2057 B.S).
  5. Different areas of cyber law are: Computer Crime, Cyberstalking, Intellectual Property, Searching and Seizing Computers and Data Protection adn Privacy.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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