Subject: Computer Science
Attempts have been made for several years for the development of superconductors using Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) or biochips. These computers will be able to understand natural language and will have thinking power called Artificial Intelligence. Only the experts will be able to use these computers because they will be much more sophisticated than present microcomputers.
It is an advanced concept of computer science that studies how human think and then attempts to apply that knowledge in hardware and software to give computers similar capabilities.
Areas of research include speech and pattern recognition, the ability to perform language translations, natural language processing, the ability to learn from previous experience and the ability to reason under conditions providing only incomplete information.
Practical applications for AI range from medical diagnostics to computer configuration and the interpretation of oil well logging data.
In Artificial Intelligence, problem-solving and decision-making system that uses a computer representation derived from the knowledge and experience of the human expert is called expert system.
An expert system consists of two parts; the domain or database of factual knowledge about the subject, and a set of rules that provide a method of using that knowledge. Expert systems are usually confined to a very narrow area of expertise. This is also known as the rule-based system.
Since scientists are more concerned with the computer which can do human like; the computer should possess the following characteristics.
The most common areas where the AI used are:
E-commerce (Electronic commerce) is broadly defined as the use of telecommunications or the Internet to carry out a business of any type. With the help of the internet, e-commerce has become accessible to anyone equipped with an internet connection and a Web browser. Increasingly, Internet users are shopping online, opening online bank accounts and trading stocks online.
Much of e-commerce’s projected growth involves business-to-business links that customers won’t see. Business –to-business (B2B) e-commerce involves one business providing another business with the materials and supplies it needs to conduct its operations. It is true that most people equate e-commerce with online shopping.
To protect both merchants and customers, Visa, MasterCard, and American Express got together to create an online shopping security standard called Secure Electronic Transactions (SET).
In online banking, customers can use the Web browser to access their accounts, balance checkbooks, transfer funds and even pay bills online. Currently, online banking offers a competitive advantage in attracting new customers. It is now a necessary and expected service, like ATM. Another use of e-commerce area is on-line stock trading for the businessmen.
Modern technology has made possible a new kind of instruction, called distance learning, in which teachers and student are connected by technology. Audio-visual tools used in distance learning include telephone, computers, audio conferencing, short-wave radio, audiotapes, television, film, videotape, etc.
Distance learning holds out much promise for learning a process for the students who cannot appear in regular classes due to various reasons. They accept the textbooks, audio materials, video materials or online teaching via different media and complete their courses. The students sit for the online exam and get results.
As per today’s world, Artificial Intelligence has become the part of the human life. Robots are the only machines that help the human life with ease robots are especially aimed at helping the human beings for the huge and heavy work. Robots are a branch of Artificial Intelligence which deals with Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and designing computer science and application of robots.
In today’s day robots are heavily used by the Defense Military Force for their testing subjects and etc. It is the perfect example of testing such defense military forces. Robots are use for the GPS Navigation of bomb finder as well as the Inspection.
The robotics has been used in various fields such as:
Industries: Handling material, drilling, polishing color coating etc are done by robots in industries. A Huge amount of highly qualified automated robots is used in big industries and factories.
Military: A robot can be used in the military force for the testimonial examples. Rescue mission can be done with the help of robots during the War. Highly qualified automated defense robots can be used for the defense system.
Intellectual Property are the works done by the own creativity of an individual or the creation of mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs and symbols, names and images used in commerce. It includes copyrights, patents, trademark and industrial design.
So, intellectual property rights are thelegal rights granted with the aim to protect the creations of the intellect or the creation of individuals. These rights include Industrial Property Rights (e.g. patents, industrial designs and trademarks) and Copyright (right of the author or creator) and Related Rights (rights of the performers, producers and broadcasting organisations).
This includes patent rights, trademark and industrial design. These rights helps to protect the distinctive signs, in particular trademark (which distinguihes the products of one company from other companies). The main purpose of this right is to stimulate and ensure the fair competition in the market and to protect customers by informing them about the choices between different kinds of products.
This right helps to protect the works of authors from being copied. It includes the protection of literary and artistic works ( such as books and other writings, musical compositions, paintings,sculpture, films, etc. ). The main purpose of this right is to encourage and reward the creative works of individuals.
Khanal, R.C. Khanal, R.C. Computer Concept for XII. Pashupatigriha Marga, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal: Ekta Books Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2010. 112-114.
Adhikari, Deepak Kumar.,et.al., Computer Science XII,Asia Publication Pvt.Ltd
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