evolution of tourism

Subject: Travel and Tourism

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Travel is not created itself. It was created in the ancient time by primitive people. Early humans used to travel by foot basically in search of food. Tourism was only meant for trade and business. Concept of grand tour was developed. With the help of development in technology mass tourism was developed. SAARC also realized the importance of tourism and visa exemption scheme was introduced. In Nepal tourism have also arrived from time immemorial. Manjushree is known as first tourist to visit Nepal. After unification there was established a good relation between Britain and Nepal. After democracy first international airlines was operated and different major tourism event took place.
evolution of tourism

Evolution of Tourism

Evolution of Tourism- Global perspective

Since travel is an ancient behavior any study of tourism is incomplete without historical perspective. Early humans lived a hard life. They used to travel by foot. The search for basic necessities, food water and shelter kept early hunters and gatherers on the move.

With the development in mankind the, tourism also developed. People started to travel for trade and business purpose. Many historians and anthropologists consider travel for trade and commerce activity in ancient civilizations. As commerce grew, so did travel for pleasure. The societies of Greece, Egypt and Rome openly encouraged pleasure travel by providing necessary ways and means. With such support each travel contributed to the success of each of these great empires.

After the fall of Roman Empire the middle or dark ages were indeed dark times for travel. The luxury of vacation travel disappeared. Resources required for the common person to travel were no longer available. During the middle ages, pilgrimages were undertaken for variety of purpose. Some individuals travelled to religious site for the forgiveness of their sins, other to receive a divine cure for their health problem. Several shrines or churches shaped a common itinerary. Very popular sites had an array of inns and hostels to accommodate weary travelers. People travelled in groups to guard against robbers and muggers.

The Renaissance was a time of enlightenment, change, and exploration from the fourteenth to seventeenth century. During this period the Grand Tour of Europe emerged as one of the first manifestations of upper-class travel. That brought modernization in tourism. Young English elites of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries often spent two or four years travelling around Europe which is known as grand tour. The major cities of grand tour were Paris, rome, venice, florance, naples and Britain.

The post-war years from 1945 until the present time have been a period of technological revolution; in fact a second industrial revolution. Accordingly, it has been a period of massive growth in travel in the industrialized and richer countries in the world. Transport and other forms of communication reinforced economic factor favoring tourism expansion. Over the period, trains and public road transport lost their prime importance; indeed in some countries such as the USA railways became minor passenger transport provides. Air transport increased at even faster rate. Due to massive development in air transport mass tourism came to development.

(NCTTM, 2014)

Evolution of Tourism in the region (SAARC)

SAARC refer to 'South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation' and includes 8 countries. The history of tourism in SAARC nation come along the civilization of mankind. Importance of tourism has also been recognized since the early days of SAARC. The first summit was held in Dhaka, Bangladesh on 7–8 December 1985. It was attended by the government representative of each member nation. Since then the importance of tourism has been practically discussed in each summit of SAARC. During the second SAARC summit which was held in November 16–17 Bengaluru, India in 1986, the leaders agreed to establish committee in order to facilitate tourism in the region. Third Meeting of the SAARC Tourism Ministers, precede by Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Tourism was held at Kathmandu in January 2011. The Meeting reviewed implementation of the decisions taken at its last meeting. It also reviewed the status of implementation of the SAARC Action Plan on Tourism-2006 and noted with satisfaction that most of the decisions taken earlier have been implemented by the Member States.

During the fourth SAARC Summit (Islamabad, 29-31 December, 1988) while realizing the importance of having people to people contacts, among the peoples of SAARC countries, decided that certain categories of dignitaries should be entitled to a Special Travel document, which would exempt them for visa within the region therefore visa exemption scheme was introduced. There are various other organizations as well which are working for the development of tourism among SAARC countries. South Asia Tourism Society (SATS) is an organization which is working continuously and selflessly to develop the trade and tourism among SAARC nation. They also provide information about the SAARC countries to tourists who want to visit. United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) also works for the development and promotion of tourism not only in SAARC countries but all over the united nations.

It is only with SAARC tourism that you get to explore the ancient civilization, affluent cultural diversity, exclusive culinary delights, vast geographical attractions, heart full heritage sites and above all the warm hospitality of people belonging to these countries.

(About us: SAARC, 2009)(Secretariat, 2009)

(saarc tourism)

Evolution of Tourism in Nepal

Tourism have arrived in some form or the other from time immemorial in nepal. As far the legend goes, ‘Manjushree’ had made the valley fit for human inhabitation by cutting the chovar hill of Kathmandu valley with his sword. Although Manjushree is said to have come from either India or China, yet he is regarded as the first tourist ever visiting Nepal. In the Nepalese history, the Lichchhavi period is regarded very significant from the tourism viewpoint. In Lichchhavi period there had been enormous progress art and culture, paintings, architecture, and sculpture. The marriage relation between Princess Bhrikuti, daughter of King Amshuvarma and Srongsten Gampo, the King of the northern state lasha gave a new height to the development of tourism. Thereafter Nepal became the only route visit china via lasha and travel from china to india via lasha this led to increase in arrival of foreigners in Nepal.

After the unification of greater nepal, it got new dimension to travel and tourism in countrie’s perspective. After the treaty of Sugauli between Nepal and the British East India Company in 1816 A.D., a British Resident, Dr. Wallich, was appointed in Kathmandu for better relation between Britain and Nepal. Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur’s visit to Britain in 1850-51 A.D. brought the myterious and fascinating Kingdom of Nepal into the limelight in Europe. Similarly king George V and the Prince of wales came to Nepal for hunting tigers in the terai forests. In Percival London’s book ‘Nepal’ the earliest published record shows that 153 Europeans mostly British are listed to have visited Kathmandu in a period of 44 years from 1881 to 1925. Despite tehse developments, the Rana autocracy isolated Nepal from external influence for 104 years. During that period, Nepal wa a ‘forbidden land’ for foreigners except for small traders and Indian pilgrims.

After the advent of democracy in 1950, Nepal started to develop differently in social, economic and political life. Since that time, the door of Nepal has remained open to foreigners with the desire to visit Nepal. In 1952 A.D. the commencement of the domestic schedule flights from kathmandu to pokhara, bhairahawa, simara, and biratnagar. In 1953 A.D. successful expedition of Mt.Everest brought a new dimension for tourism. Again in 1956 A.D. the visa system was introduced for the first time. Royal Nepal Airlines corporation was established in 1957 A.D. and it started its operation in 1958 A.D. with the development of tourism ‘tourism act 2035’ was issued in 1978 A.D. In 2011 A.D. Nepal tourism year 2011 was introduced with the mission of 1 million tourist capacity building in the country.

(NCTTM, 2014)

Abroad Studies Opportunities

Works Cited

(n.d.). Retrieved from http//www.saarc.org

(n.d.). Retrieved from httpsaarctourism

About us: SAARC. (2009, january 1). Retrieved july 2, 2016, from saarc-sec.org: http://saarc-sec.org

NCTTM. (2014). course material of travel and tourism management. In s. marasini, course material of travel and tourism management (pp. 80-85). kathmandu: NCTTM.

saarc tourism. (n.d.). Retrieved from saarctourism.org: http://www.saarctourism.org

Secretariat, S. (2009, january 2). About us:SAARC. Retrieved july 2, 2016, from SAARC-sec.org: https://www.SAARC-sec.org

Things to remember

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->1.     <!--[endif]-->early days up to 1840 AD: People travelled for different purposes like commercial interests, religious purposes, seeking knowledge etc.

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->2.     <!--[endif]-->concept of mass tourism , globalization of tourism and living standard of people was developed

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->3.     <!--[endif]-->The SAARC visa exemption scheme was held in 1992 AD
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<!-- [if !supportLists]-->4.     <!--[endif]-->1St meeting of SAARC tourism minister was held in Colombo I September 1997.
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<!-- [if !supportLists]-->5.     <!--[endif]-->In 1850, Junga Bahadur Rana visited Egypt, Britain, France and religious places of India

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->6.     <!--[endif]-->1958 jult 4th RNAC operated its first flight

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->7.     <!--[endif]-->1964, Hotel Shankar and 1965, Hotel Annapurna established
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<!-- [if !supportLists]-->8.     <!--[endif]-->Feb 1997, Nepal tourism Board Act 2057 formulated

<!-- [if !supportLists]-->9.     <!--[endif]-->feb 23 , 1977 Ministery of Tourism


<!-- [if !supportLists]-->10.   <!--[endif]-->Government declared the year 1998 as year of tourist with slogan “vNY98”.

  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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