Mass Media

Subject: Mass Communication

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The Media gives information and entertainment in the society. It may be newspapers,radio,or television and magazines,that reach or influence people widely. The latest but dynamic mass media is the internet. Some classify media as print media, electronic media, and internet.
Mass Media

Media is one of the means of channels of communication through which news, entertainment, education data and promotional messages are spread to the mass. It helps to give information and entertainment in the society. It may be newspapers,radio,or television and magazines,that reach or influence people widely.

Types of Mass Media

Many communication scholars have different opinions on the division types of mass media. The Mass media focuses on broad messages that have widespread appeal to gain the largest possible audience. The Internet has shattered the definition of mass media with audiences for the specialized publications and news sources in many ways. In above classification, there is no place for the audio cassettes, CDs, VCDs, DVDs, MP-3, etc. Besides them, alternative media like banners, posters, display boards, etc. are not included even though they are also very effective mass media. The mass media are classified into three broad categories. They are as follow:

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1. Print Media

Print media is the paper publications in the form of physical editions of books, magazines, journals and newsletters. From the beginning of the civilization, human beings have been using print media in different forms for a different purpose. Reporters are the newspaper writers who investigate news events and interesting stories. Print media refers to the written things, which are prepared in press by using printing machine. Print media includes newspapers, magazines and other types of publications. The Print is the oldest type of media. Many people still use this type for their news. The written word which includes digital words are the ones we are using. The example of print media is Books, newspapers, magazines, etc.

i. Books

A Book is the oldest form of modern mass media. A book is a set of printed pages that are fastened inside the cover so that you can turn them and read them easily. Modern books are available in electronic forms. Other print media book shares the function of informing, educating , entertainment and persuading. Before, the printing press was invented books were published by handwriting.

ii. Newspaper

The newspaper is a set of large printed sheets of paper containing news, articles, advertisement etc. which are published every day or every week. Daily newspaper of large investment dominates the landscape of newspaper. General interest newspapers are usually journals of current news on a variety of topics.

iii. Magazine

Magazine is a type of large thin book with the paper cover that you can buy every week or months. It is issued periodically like weekly, monthly, quarterly , yearly etc. Magazines have a specific target audience. and more clear than a newspaper. An American weekly magazine is one of the largest selling magazines in the world.

2. Electronic Media

Electronic media refers to any type of device that stores and allows the use of electronic information. This includes television, radio, Internet, fax, CDROMs, DVD, and any other electronic medium. It is the media that one can share on any electronic device for the audiences viewing, Printing. Examples of Electronic media are the things such as the television, radio, or the wide internet. The Electronic media has a wide range that broadcasts a variety of different things like advertisements and promotions. The different types of Electronic media are listed below:

i. Television

The Television attracts the largest number of viewers among all the mass media. Its audience is greater in size than any of the other media audiences. It is because television is able to attract the audiences of all age groups, literate and illiterate and of all the people of the society. The most used electronic media devices is the Television. The franchisees can pay for advertisements to show millions of people which bring in more business for the franchise owner. Television has been able to influence the people living in remote areas of our country. It has also covered the remote villages and tribal pockets.

ii. Radio

Radio was the first mass medium of communication which reach the millions of people altering social attitudes, family relationships, and people's relationships to their environment. The Radio is just similar to the television but , It gives just sound. It is the powerful means of communication. The Electronic media like Radio can be more effective and much more affordable than Television. But, it does not engage the listeners as much as visual ads.

iii. Internet

The Internet is one of the most profitable Electronic media devices. With the help of a single click of a button, ads will fill the web page. It is a new mass medium and a forceful one too. It has become an integral part of other mass media as well . It also supports industries, public, and advertising. The Internet is not only a mass medium but is also a global medium with a potential to reach every relation and advertising. It is also a unique channel for mass communication which has challenged the fundamental concepts.

iv. Media Shops

Shops have Electronic media in most of the places. It may be on an electric billboard or ATM screen. Electronic media is sure to be almost everywhere you go. It is used to deliver advertising and informational messages to people who are passing by the displays. They are still relatively difficult to purchase and install. It helps to keep consumers updated in real time with flexible messaging options. It also changes copy within minutes without any printing or installation costs.(Carl Xie-Connell)

3. Alternative Media

Many ideas are applied to reach the information to a large mass of people. Alternative media are neither print media nor the electronic. Pamphlets, banners, hoarding board, astray ads, colour clothes, wall painting, road painting, Jacket, T-shirt painting, balloon flying etc. are the examples of Alternative media.

i. Poster

A poster is a large notice, often with pictures. It is put in the public place to advertise something. It is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.It’s usually designed to be displayed vertically on a wall or window. It is large enough to be seen and read from a relatively short distance. Its main target audience is the person walking by. A poster must convey its message with immediacy because people on the street are often in hurry.

ii. Pamphlet

A Pamphlet is a very thin book with a paper cover containing information about a particular subject. It is a type of advertising and the informational material which consists a small leaflet or booklet. It may consist of a few pages that are folded in half and saddle stapled to make a simple book.

iii. Banner

A Banner is a long piece of cloth with the message on it. It is carried between two poles in the public place to show support for something. Today, such flash banners have become much more complex with technologies.Most commerce-related Web sites use banner ads.

iv. Hoarding

A Hoarding is a large board on the outside of the building. It may be at the side of the road. It is used for putting an advertisement on. It is also known as the temporary fence-like structure built around building work to add security.


Carl Xie-Connell. Skill maker. 01 June 2015. Electronic. 09 07 2016.

Khadka, Binaya Devkota, and Leelawati. Mass Communication. Kathmandu, Nepal: Pradhan Book House, 2068(2011) Revised. 48 - 54. Electronic.

Things to remember
  1. Print media refers to paper publications circulated in the form of physical editions of books, magazines, journals and newsletters.
  2. The example of print media is Books, newspapers, magazines, etc. 
  3. Pamphlets, banners, hoarding board, astray ads, colour clothes, wall painting, road painting, Jacket, T-shirt painting, balloon flying etc. are the  examples of Alternative media.         

Types of Mass Media 

-Print Media 

-Electronic Media 

Alternative Media 


  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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