Concept, Scope, Function and Characteristics of Communication

Subject: Mass Communication

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Communication is the way or process in which the sender needs to encode the message and send it to the concerned person through communication. The scope of communication is wide and pervasive. The Human beings are somehow engaged in communication from cradle to grave. It includes staffing, directing, planning, organizing and controlling. Communication is necessary for the effective functioning of the organization.
Concept, Scope, Function and Characteristics of Communication

Concept of Communication


Communication is the method of transferring information between people or group for mutual understanding and confidence. It involves the flow of information from the sender to the receiver. The receiver must understand the meaning and message of information. It can also be taken as the process of sharing ideas, thoughts, opinions and views from one person to another person. A manager should communicate effectively to his subordinates to implement the plans and policies. The communication is one of the important function of management.

Communication involves the transmission of verbal and non-verbal messages. With the help of a sender, a receiver, and channel of communication, it conveys complex, sensitive and controversial information. Communication requires the full understanding of behaviors associated with the sender and receiver. It is the exchange of facts, opinion, idea or emotion between two or more than two persons of common interest. The process of communication can be classified into two categories mass media and group media. Mass media focuses on reaching a wide audience and the group media reaches a specific group with clearly defined characteristics. Radio, television, and internet are examples of mass media channels and drama, storytelling, music and dance falls under group media.

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Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place to another. It can be verbal, written by using printed or digital media such as books, magazines, websites or emails. Similarly, visual using logos, maps, charts or graphs and non-verbal using body language, gestures and the tone and pitch of the voice.


Scope of communication

Communication is essential in every part of our human life. The scope of communication is wide and pervasive. Human beings are somehow engaged in communication from cradle to grave. No one can pass even a day without communication. The scope of communication are given as follows:

1. Communication in personal life:

Communication is closely related to every part of human life. We depend on communication for doing our various activities from dawn to dusk. Nobody can pass his/her daily life without the application of communication. It is an important part and parcel of our personal life. Everybody needs to communicate with different people and organizations daily.

2. Communication in social life:

Humans are social beings and everybody in the society are related to each other. Business communication has played the vital role in this social freedom of human beings. The presence of communication helps the people to share their sorrows, happiness etc. We are living in an integrated society because we are on the human civilization. In social life, people need to develop social bondage. Communication helps us in creating and strengthening this social bondage.

3. Communication in the state affairs:

The life of state cannot run without the flow of communication. Business communication plays a vital role for different ministries, departments, divisions and offices of the state in performing the activities. The government maintains the functions of the state by the different modes of communication. Without communication, the state neither can administer its various wings nor can maintain relationships with the other part of the world. The whole world has turned into a global village due to revolutionary change in communication.

4. Communication in business:

In this modern age, we cannot think of business without communication. Communication is the lifeblood of business. It provides necessary information in formulating business plans and policies. Communication is directly related to the production of goods and services, purchasing and selling, warehousing, distribution and other business activities.

5. Communication in management:

Management is the means of achieving organizational goals. The effective communication with the various internal and external parties leads to efficiency and effectiveness of management. The level of management like planning, organizing, recruiting, leading, motivation, coordination, and control depend on sound communication method. Every function of management depends on communication.

6. Communication in industrial relations:

Industrial relation refers to the management of labor relationship in the industry or in an organization. The good industrial relation means the relationship of owner and employee. It is necessary to bring success in business. Employees are the mainspring of an organization and their cooperation is must to operate business activities. Free flow of information lessens doubt, confusion and controversies between workers and management. As a result, the harmonious relationship develops in the organization.

7. Communication in international affairs:

The communication is not merely confined within the national boundary, in this age of globalization. All the countries are exchanging their cultural, economic, social, political, educational , technological affairs with each other. Various regional and international organizations such as the United Nations, World Bank, NAFTA, SAFTA, ASEAN, SAARC, EU etc have been formed which facilitate cooperation and communication among countries.

8. Communication in religion:

Communication is also present in spreading and circulating various religious doctrines. Prophets and saints have preached the verses of almighty to their followers. Even now, many religious thinkers are performing the duty of preaching and circulating religious verses. (The Business Communication)

Functions of Communication

The communication involves a mutual exchange of understanding. It is the basic functions of business management. The function of communication includes staffing, directing, planning, organizing and controlling. Communication is necessary for the effective functioning of both internal and external activities of the organization.

1. Information function:

The basic requirement of adjusting oneself to the environment is the information. There must be some information about what is going on in the environment which concerns the people. The direct or indirect receiving or giving of information underlines all communication functions.

2. Command or instructive function:

The command or instructive function is the purpose of informing their subordinates about what to do, how to do and when to do. The command and instructive functions of communication are more effective and observable in formal organizations than in informal organizations.

3. Interaction function:

Communication is essential for employees who work together on a project during the training process. Communication helps the employees to interact with the customers and each other. Interaction is necessary for all the employees. A customer service department communicates with customers to help them resolve issues. In the past, a business letter can be used to introduce a company to a potential customer.

4. Influence or persuasive function:

The purpose of communication is to influence people and lead them in the desirable direction. The persuasive function of communication helps to direct and motive the employees in their respective field .

5. Integrative function:

A major function of communication is to integrate any disintegration at the interpersonal and at the organizational level. This helps in maintaining individual, societal and organizational stability. It also helps to establish identity of the organization.

6. Motivational function:

Managers use communication to motivate workers and to achieve peak performance. The communication can help companies to reach the specific objectives, by clarifying the expectations of employees and providing incentives for meeting and exceeding expectations.

7. Control function:

A company uses communication as a method to maintain control over employees and their work environment. The policies and procedures of human resources indicate how employees are allowed to act in the workplace. The parameters of an employee's job functions are outlined by job descriptions. Performance reviews control whether an employee receives a raise or attains a promotion.

8. Providing feedback:

Communication allows the employees, managers, and business owners to give and receive feedback on the changes that are being considered. For example, if a small business owner is considering a purchase of new computer system, he may first consult with his employees. They determine what features the system should include and what help they may need in learning the system.


Characteristics of Communication

1. Accurate Message

The message of a communication must be clear, concise and accurate. The information of an inaccurate message loses its credibility. The sender of the information also loses credibility. The effectiveness of the communication is accurate in terms of the content conveyed.

2. Timely

The employees want to know what is going on in the external and internal environment of the organizations. The technology of the environment is more challenging than before for businesses to communicate with employees in a timely manner. It is also critical for the effectiveness of the business communication.

3. Understanding

Effective communicators must understand to whom they are talking with. They must understand the style of communication. For example, People probably talk to the co-workers very differently than they talk to their boss.

4. Empathy

Empathy means putting yourself in the other person’s shoes. Effective communicators always see the situation of empathy from the perspective of the other person. It also includes the emotions that might be involved with the message.

5. Effective Listening

Effective listening is the method of hearing what other person is saying. The restatement of the message and repeating it back to the individual will let you know the understanding of their point accurately. It also shows that you care enough about their message to get it right the first time.

6. Frequent

Effective business communication occurs frequently to ensure that has been received by all employees. It cannot be assumed that a message has been received by the receiver if it is sent for just one time. The employees leave, join the company and gets transfer from one role to another that requires new and updated information.

7. Multi-Channel

Effective business communication needs to be sent through multi-channels to ensure that it is received by employees in different settings. The businesses have a variety of channels to choose from the traditional such as print, meetings to the new-technology email, blogs, social media sites.

8. Face-to-Face

Face-to-face communication is still one of the most effective types of communication. It should be used whenever possible and practical. It is used in very large organizations which can be challenging. It may include video conferencing or the use of webinars.

9. Two-Way

Effective communication gives the opportunity for two-way communication to benefit employees and employers. The communications should be of two-way as employees need the opportunity to share their feedback, opinions and thoughts with managers and employers.

10. Asking for Clarification, when Necessary

Effective communicators should not be afraid to ask for clarification if they don’t understand the message. If anyone asks for clarification, it shows that he really care about the person who is talking. It also ensures that the conversation has proceeded appropriately.

11. Body language

The effective communicators should know how to tune into the non-verbal message. Body language makes up a large percentage of our messages. Make eye contact with the person you are talking to as much as possible when you are speaking. The communicators should avoid the offensive body language like touching hair and rolling eyes that might convey the lack of honesty.

12. A Positive Attitude

The effective communicators must work hard to keep their messages positive as no one likes to listen to a complaint. Everyone should focus on what they can do for others instead of doing the things they feel difficult. The communicators must keep the message positive that may allow the other person to accept your “no” with grace.

(Public Spark)


Munodawafa, Davison. Oxford Journals. 2008. Electronic. 07 06 2016

Preserve Copyright 2012. Electronic. 06 07 2016

Public Spark. Copyright 2014. Electronic. 06 07 2016

The Business Communication. 2015 copyright. Electronic. 06 07 2016

Things to remember
  1. Communication is the process of transferring information between people or group for mutual understanding and confidence.
  2.  Communication conveys complex, sensitive and controversial information.
  3. The scope of communication is wide and pervasive.
  4. We do various activities from dawn to dusk and we depend on Communication for doing that. 
  5.  Business Communication has played the vital role in this social freedom of human beings. 
  6. Business Communication plays the vital role in performing the activities of different ministries, departments, divisions and offices of the state. 
  7. The message of a communication must be clear, concise and accurate. 
  8. Communication allows the employees, managers, and business owners to give and receive feedback on the changes that are being considered.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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