Subject: Hotel Management

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Hygiene refers to the set of practices associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. In general, hygiene mostly means practices that prevent spread of disease causing harmful micro organisms.

Fig: Washing Hand (www.tes.com)

Hygiene refers to the set of practices associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. IN general, hygiene mostly means practices that prevent the spread of disease-causing harmful micro organisms. Since cleaning process removes infections - microbes as well as dirt and soil, they are often the means to achieve hygiene. It is also the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion of health because of the risk of food poisoning. Hygiene in the food presentation (kitchen) areas are referred to the main three types, they are

  • Personal hygiene
  • Kitchen hygiene
  • Food hygiene

Personal Hygiene

Personal Hygiene

Personal hygiene can be defined as the study and practice of preventing illness or stopping it from spreading by keeping oneself clean. In Other words, personal hygiene refers to high Standard of personal cleanliness and appearance of the staff which is essential not only to prevent the spread of disease but also to win the respect of others because when we apply for a position in a hospitality industry, our appearance and cleanliness will be carefully noted.

Personal hygiene may be described as the principle of maintaining cleanliness and grooming of the external body. It is, in general, looking after yourself. Personal hygiene can be controlled by sustaining high standards of personal care and humans have been aware of the importance of hygiene for thousands of years. The ancient Greeks spent many hours in the bath, using fragrances and makeup in an effort to beautify themselves and be presentable to others.

Personal hygiene products are a billion dollar business in the commercial market, with many high profile celebrities endorsing products that aim to keep us looking our best. In fact, hygiene is actually a scientific study. Maintaining a high level of personal hygiene will help to increase self-esteem and confidence whilst minimizing the chances of developing imperfections.

Many sufferers of mental illnesses like dementia or depression may need extra support and encouragement with their personal hygiene. Their carers should make sure that they have everything they need and assist them when permitted and when possible

Proper personal hygiene can be achieved by the following ways:

1. Bathing:lt is essential for all the food handlers to take a shower regularly and change undergarments daily, such as socks/stockings and briefs. Bathing not only removes visible dirt and germs but also helps eliminate body odour.

2. Hands:Hands must be washed thoroughly and frequently with hot soapy water and dry hands with towels or under the dryer. Hand must be washed:-

  • On entering food room and before handling food
  • After going to the toilet
  • After smoking
  • After blowing nose
  • After handling raw food
  • After handling refuse
  • After eating
  • After using cleaning materials

3.Fingernails:Fingernails must be kept short. It should be cleaned regularly with a nailbrush, and nail varnish should not be worn.

4. Hair:Hair should be washed regularly. It should be kept covered by wearing an appropriate chef hat. The men's hair should be kept short, as it is easier to keep it clean and also looks neater. Women's hair should be covered as much as possible. One should never scratch, comb or touch hair in the kitchen as germs could be transferred to the food via the hands or hair strand may fall in the food.

5. Nose: The nose should not be touched when food is being handled. Avoid sneezing or coughing near food. Use a disposable tissue to wipe the nose.

6. Mouth: Never touch the mouth or lips as germs in saliva pass from Fingers to food and table-tops. If food needs to be tasted during preparation, a clean spoon should be used and not the fingers or utensils used in preparation.

7. Ears: The ear-holes should not be picked or scratched while in the kitchen as germs can be transferred into the food.

8. Shoes: Kitchen shoes worn exclusively for food duties should not be worn outside.

9. Protective clothing: Uniforms should be worn only at work and not at other times. They should be laundered regularly. Leisure clothes should be kept well away from the kitchen.

10. Cuts, burns, and sores:It is particularly important to keep all cuts, burns, and scratches of the skin covered with a waterproof dressing. Where the skin is septic, there are vast numbers of harmful germs. Such germs must not be permitted to get on food.

11. Jewellery: Rings, watches, bracelets, earrings, necklaces, etc. should not be worn while at work.

12. Cosmetics:Excess cosmetics should not be put while working in the kitchen.

13. Habits:Smoking, spitting anywhere, tasting of food using fingers or other activities, which brings hands and mouth directly in contact with food, should be strictly prohibited.

14. Illness:Any Illness should be immediately reported to the concerned authority.

Kitchen Hygiene

Kitchen Hygiene
Fig: Cleanng Kitchen (www.blisstree.com)

Kitchen hygiene is related to clean and maintain the surfaces and equipment of entire kitchen and very crucial part of total hygiene in the Food production areas. Carelessness in the cleanliness of any section of the kitchen could lead a risk of food poisoning. To make a kitchen safe and hygienic the following important points must be considered.

  • Kitchen floors should be cleaned (swept, mopped, scrub with detergent and rinse with hot and cold water) daily or each shift of operation if necessary.
  • Ventilation should be thoroughly cleaned and wiped.
  • Lightings should be wiped with damp cloth.
  • Walls, ceilings, doors, windows should be wiped and polished with right agents as per the routine.
  • Put rubbish bins in appropriate locations and dispose of garbage frequently.
  • Refrigerator, deep freezer, and cool rooms should be cleaned with lukewarm Soda water. Do not use soap or any other detergent powder.
  • All kitchen (Kitchen appliances) manual and mechanical equipment should be cleaned with hot water such as food mixtures, miners, processors, slicers, grinder/ blender, etc.
  • Stillrooms, working tables, cupboards and racks should be periodically cleaned.
  • Chopping boards should be frequently cleaned and wiped.
  • Kitchen store area must be checked and cleaned regularly.

Food Hygiene

Food Hygiene
Fig: Hygenic food (www.infomagic.com)

Food hygiene is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Rules regarding food hygiene are:

  • Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests.
  • Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.
  • Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill temperature.
  • Coolers/ freezers and refrigerators should be cleaned frequently and store food at the proper temperature.
  • Use safe water and raw materials
  • Use clean and sharp blade knife and clean chopping board after each use.
  • Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, as food manufacturers prefer, to indicate its “best before" date).
  • Equipment like spatulas, ladles, skewers, etc are to be dipped into sanitizer after each use.
  • Food once cooked should be re-heated properly up to 63* Celsius.
  • Quick cooling of food is essential prior to the refrigeration or freezer.


Oli, Gopal Singh and B. B. Chhetri.Hotel management. Kathmandu: Buddha publications Pvt. Ltd., 2015. Book.

Shrestha, Dinesh; K.C, Saroj; karki, karuna; Sharma, Robin; elt.Hotel Management. kathmandu: Arcadia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2068,Shrawan.

Things to remember
  1. Hygiene is the study of health and prevention of disease to avoid the risk of food poisoning.
  2. Personal hygiene can be defined as the study and practice of preventing illness or stopping it from spreading by keeping oneself cleans.
  3. Food hygiene is a scientific discipline describing handing, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness.
  4. Hygiene is the set of practices associated with the preservation of health and healthy living.
  5. Proper  hygiene can  be achieved by bathing daily, keeping finger nails short, washing hands after  using the toilet, chemical smoking etc.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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