Food Commodities

Subject: Hotel Management

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Food commodities generally refer to ingredients required to produce different varieties of foods. Eggs; Eggs laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Poultry/poulet; It refers to any domestic bird’s uses for various dishes like chicken, turkey, duck etc. Fats and oil; The best Oil is olive Oil, because of its taste.
Food Commodities

Food Commodities
Food Commodities (Source:

Food commodities generally refer to ingredients required to produce different varieties of foods. They are mostly raw/ core form of edible materials which help to become a complete recipe of the dish as per the menu offered, although, some ingredients come in the ready form to consume. Some of the essential commodities are discussed under:


Fig: Eggs (

Eggs laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white) and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, roe, and caviar; but by a wide margin the egg most often humanly consumed is the chicken egg. Mainly the egg consists shell, yolk and white part.

Quality of eggs

  • The shell should be unbroken, clean, strong and slightly rough.
  • The yolk should be round and Firm.
  • There should be no air pocket or only a very small one.
  • The white should be clear and not watery.

How to test eggs

The quality and age of eggs is tested in two ways:

  • Candling: The egg is held against a strong tight or with the use of a candle and defects can be seen as well as the size of air pocket and position of egg yolk.
  • Salt water test: The egg is dropped in a solution of salt water at the bottom. If the egg floats in the solution it means it is stake / old.


  • Eggs must be stored in their packing trays with the pointed end facing downward.
  • Always store in a cool room at 2°C to 5°C.
  • Keep away from strong smelling food such as cheese, onions, garlic, ginger, fish, etc.
  • Egg should never be washed before being stored, as washing would remove its natural protective coating.
  • Do not stock eggs for more than a week.
  • Always adopt FIFO method.

Grading of eggs by weight

  • Large grade: 65 gm. and above.
  • Standard grade: 50-60 gm.
  • Medium grade: 45gm.
  • Small grade: 40gm.


Poultry (

It refers to any domestic bird’s uses for various dishes like chicken, turkey, duck etc. It contains protein, fact and provides heat and energy. It helps in building and repairing the body.


Fresh poultry must hang indrawn for 24 hours in a cool room. It will keep in fridge 4-5 days. For longer storage, the poultry must be frozen.

Quality of poultry

  • The breast of chicken should be plump.
  • The breast bone of chicken must be pliable.
  • The flesh must be firm.
  • The skin must be white and unbroken.
  • The leg must be smooth, small scales and small spurs.
  • The feet and bills of duck should be bright yellow and web feet easy to tear.
  • The legs of turkey should be black and smooth.
  • The breast of turkey should be large, the skin undamaged with no sign of Stickiness.

Food value

Poultry is easily digestible than other meat and fat content is very low. ItContains proteins and fat, which provides heat and energy and it helps in building and repairing body tissues.


Roasting, grilling, braising, stew, curries, snacks etc.


Certain wild birds and animals, which are hunted for sports, are called the game. Feathered game includes pheasant, wild duck, partridge, woodcock, grouse, snipe, quill etc. furred game includes venison. Hare, rabbit, boar etc.

Fats and Oil

Fats and oil
Fats and oil (

Fat is essential food commodities that are available in many forms. Fats at solid in a room temperature and melt when heated. Oils are liquid fats. They are liquid at room temperatures but it gets solidify when cool.


Fats and oils should contain little or no moisture, otherwise, they splutter, fats, and should have a pleasant smell or no smell at all. The best Oil is olive Oil, because of its taste


Fats must be stored in a cool place. Butter-margarine in the refrigerator and oil in closed cans. They should be stored carefully, away from direct heat. Fats that are old become rancid and cannot be used any more.

Types of Fats

1)Animal fats

a) Dripping: It is produced from the rendered down fat of beef and pork carcass.

b) Butter: Butter is made from the fatty parts of cow's milk. It is used mostly for its pleasant flavor.

c) Lard: Lard is produced from rendered far from pigs.

d) Suet: Suet is the hard solid fat, deposit around the kidneys of animals. Beef sure is the best then other animal's suet.

2)Vegetable fats

a) Pastry margarine: It is a semi-hard Fat blended, especially for pastry making

b) Block margarine: It is a hard and semi-hard fat for use in sauces.

C) Table margarine: It soft fat used as a substitute for butter in sandwiches.

d) Vegetable oils/shortening: Those are liquid fats, which is obtained from soybean, sunflower, sesame, corn, mustard, olive, almond, peanut etc.


Used in roasting, frying, baking, pasta, soup, shallow frying, deep frying, dressings etc.


Vegetable (

Vegetables are good for the diet because they provide a valuable source of vitamin, protein carbohydrate and minerals. They have an effect on the flavor, color and general palatability of cooked products. Vegetables are plants or parts of plants served as the main course, appetizer or as an accompaniment to the main dish. All the amino acids needed to synthesize protein are available in vegetables. Fresh vegetable quickly age and spoil, but their storage life can be extended by some preservation methods as dehydration, canning, freezing fermenting and pickling. Vegetables are classified according to structure, composition flavor or color. The quality of a vegetable depends on:


The quality of a vegetable depends on flowing things

  • Climatic conditions in growing time
  • Size of vegetables
  • Vegetable growing season
  • Stage of maturity period
  • The manner and time of storage before cooking
  • The variety of vegetables


  • Leafy and fruit vegetables loose in bins or racks.
  • Root vegetable-loose in bins or racks.
  • Green vegetable-on well- ventilated racks.
  • Salad vegetable in containers in a cool place.
  • Leave potatoes in sacks.
  • Leave mushrooms in containers. Remove any vegetables that show decay.

Vegetable preparation

  • Properly wash vegetable before cutting.
  • Vegetable should not be soaked in water.
  • Use as little water as possible in cooking. This prevents the loss of vitamins, minerals, flavor and texture of food.
  • Baking powder should not be added while cooking, but salt may be added.
  • Cook or bake vegetables in their jackets.


Fruits (

Fruits are very useful food and matured ovaries of the plants, which may contain seeds. They are rich in food value, containing cellulose minerals and vitamins. It is an important source of fiber too. They come in various textures, colors, flavors and aromas. Fruits are important sources of Vitamin A and C. Each of these varieties can again be eaten in many different ways. Most fruits are delicious and refreshing. They are served as dessert after the main course or for breakfast. Fruits are used in hot or cold pastry and sponge based dishes. Ripe fruits can also be cooked, stewed, jellied, and can be preserved as jam and marmalade.

Classification of fruits

  • Soft: Strawberry, raspberry, and gooseberry.

Convenience product: Jam, syrups, squash, jellies, canned, frozen pie, filling, etc.

  • Hard: Apple, pear, cherry and olive.

Convenience product: Solid pack, canned, frozen, dried rings, flakes, and juice.

  • Citrus: Orange, lemons, grapefruit, sweet lime, lime, etc.

Convenience product: Marmalade, jams, juice, canned, jellies, andsegments.

  • Tropical: Pineapple, melon, banana, date, guava, leeches, mango, papaya, etc.

Convenience product: Canned, juice, jam, Jellies, frozen, dried.


  • Hard fruits are left in boxes and kept in a cool store.
  • Soft fruits should be left in their pun nets or baskets in a cool room.
  • Stone fruits are best placed in trays so that any damaged fruit can be seen and discarded.
  • Citrus fruits are left in their delivery trays or boxes. Bananas should not be stored in too cool a place because the skin turns black.


Oli, Gopal Singh and B. B. Chhetri.Hotel management. Kathmandu: Buddha publications Pvt. Ltd., 2015. Book.

Shrestha, Dinesh; K.C, Saroj; karki, karuna; Sharma, Robin; elt.Hotel Management. kathmandu: Arcadia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2068,Shrawan.

Things to remember
  1. In culinary terms poultry refers to any domesticated birds, which are killed and cooked for preparing differents food items.
  2. The term vegetable refers to all plants or parts plants which can be eatch raw, cooked or preserved in some forms.
  3. Fruits are the matured ovaries of the plants, which may contain seeds.
  4. Fats and oil are essential nutrients and is very useful in cookery and bakery.
  5. Fats  and oil are obtained both from animals and plants sources.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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