Subject: Computer Science
A software is a means of communication between the computer system and computer users. It is the operating system and applications that are used in computers. Basically, it is the collection of computer programs, documentation and procedures performing several tasks on a computer system. Thus, it is considered to be the heart of computer systems.
Generally, computer software consists of a machine language consisting of groups of binary values, specifying the processor instructions. The instructions change the state of computer hardware in a sequence that is pre-determined. In conclusion, a computer system is a language in which a computer speaks. There are 2 types of computer software. They are:
It is a collection of operating system, servers, device drivers, utilities and windows systems which helps in running the computer hardware and the computer system. It is designed to provide a platform to run application software and operate the computer hardware.
This software helps an application programmer to view away memory, hardware and other internal complexities of a computer. Some of its common types are:
i) Operating system:
From performing basic tasks to running important programs, the operating system is the most important program to run a computer. It is the 1st program that loads into memory when the computer is turned on. Without the operating system, no other programs such as spreadsheet software, word processing software, etc. can be run. So, in a sense, this system brings the computer to life.
When given a command, the operating system issues the instructions to the ‘brain’ i.e. the CPU or microprocessor. While working on the application software, such as Microsoft Word, your given commands are sent through the operating system to the CPU. Some of its examples are Windows2000, Windows95/98, DOS, UNIX, Mac OS, etc. Below are some of its functions.
ii) Utility Software:
Utility software are set of collective programs, available to help you with the day to day chores that are associated with personal computing and to keep your computer system run at peak performance. These are designed to help manage, control and maintain computer resources.
Some examples of utility software are:
iii) Language processor:
It is a special kind of computer software which translates the programs written in one language into another language. It is compulsory for both low and high-level language. The types of language translators are:
Application software is used to solve application type of problems. Business software, educational software and databases are some forms of application software. This software enables the users to accomplish certain specific tasks and utilizes the capacities of a computer directly to a dedicated task. It can manipulate numbers, texts and graphics. It can also focus on a certain single task like work processing, spreadsheet or playing of audio and video files. Its types are:
i) Package software:
Package software is for general purposes. Designed by software companies, it is mainly to generalize the tasks. Some common package software are:
Word Processing Software:This software enables the users in creating and editing documents. MS-Word, Notepad, Word pad and some other text editors are some most popular examples of Word Processing Software.
Database Software:It organizes the data and enables the users to achieve database operations. It also allows the users to store and retrieve data from databases. MS Access, Oracle, etc. are its examples.
Spreadsheet Software:By displaying multiple cells that make up a grid, this software simulates paper worksheets and allows the users to perform calculations. Its examples are Apple Numbers, Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, etc.
Multimedia Software:This software allows the users to create and play audio and video media. Audio converters, burners, players, video encoders and decoders are some forms of it. Real Player and Media Player are examples of this software.
Presentation Software:This software is best used to display information in the form of a slide show. It includes 3 functions.
Microsoft Power Point is its best example.
ii) Tailored software:
Tailored Software is also called small type of software. Tailored software is for specific purposes. Written in high-level languages such as C, JAVA, C++, COBOL (Common Business Oriented language), etc. these types of software are developed for a specific task. Banking software, hotel reservation software, hospital software, billing software, etc. are its examples.
Computer viruses are the programs or malware which are loaded onto your computer by ‘mean’ people, without your knowledge. These viruses replicate relentlessly and infect computer programs. They might even delete or corrupt your computer data or erase your hard disk too. These virus programs are placed into commonly used programs. So, when those programs are run, the attached virus infects the executable program or file.
These viruses are not of same purposes. Some have destructive intents while some are designed to play annoying tricks. Some might present themselves as jokes while doing destructive functions secretly. There are 2 major kinds of viruses. They are:
Symptoms of Virus:
Prevention of Virus:
An antivirus is a computer software designed to scan, detect and remove viruses and malicious software from computers. This software defends your computer against computer viruses that threaten to infect your computer files and systems. In order to be an effective defense virus, an antivirus needs to run all the times in the background and should be kept updated frequently.
Originally developed for the detection and removal of computer viruses, with the emerge of several kinds of viruses, antivirus software programs started to protect from other computer threats. Antivirus scans the files and folders and alerts the user if viruses are found. Some known and popular antivirus software are Kasper-sky, Avira, Norton, Avast, AVG, etc.
(Karn & Pudasaini, 2015)
Karn, M. K., & Pudasaini, D. (2015). Computer Science I. Anamnagar, Kathmandu: Buddha Publication.
Adhikari, Deepak et.al., Computer Science- XI, Asia Publication Pvt. Ltd, ktm
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