Fundamental Principles of Organic Chemistry

Subject: Chemistry

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This lesson deals with various topics related to organic chemistry which includes their definitions, sources, functional group, homologous series, classification, naming (according to IUPAC as well as the common system), orbital concepts of bonding during their reactions, different types of isomerism and much more. This lesson furthermore discusses the vital force theory and its limitation. 


Vital Force Theory, Its Limitations, And Definition of Organic Chemistry

As the organic compounds were believed to be obtained from living organisms (plants and animals), a Swedish chemist Berzelius in 1815 proposed that organic compounds could not be prepared in the laboratory and could be only produced by some mysterious force existing in the living organism, which forced was termed as 'Vital Force' (which comes from a latin word, 'vita' means 'life'), and this theory is known as vital force theory. This theory later failed. Organic compounds are hydrocarbon and their derivatives. Learn More

Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are mostly composed up of the elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, and rarely phosphorous. Out of these elements, C and H are generally found in organic compounds. Elements other than H and C present in the organic compound is referred as foreign elements. They can be detected by various ways. Learn More

Classification of Hydrocarbons

The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. They are of various type according to their structure. The hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the open chain are known as open-chain compounds. Those hydrocarbons in which the carbon atoms are bonded to each other with a single covalent bond (-C-C-) are called saturated hydrocarbons. Learn More

Introduction of organic chemistry, classification of organic compounds

Almost all the substances that we come across in our daily life are chemical substances. Example: food like carbohydrates, fat, vitamins etc. things like steel, wood, glass, gold etc. In 1828, a German scientist named Fredrich Wohler synthesise urea from Ammonium cyanate. Urea was previously extracted from the urine of animals which is prepared in the kidney of a living animal. Fredrich Wohler was successful in preparing same organic compound from an inorganic source. Learn More

Functional Group and Homologous Series

A functional group is defined as an atom or group of atoms linked with carbon which determines characteristic properties of the organic compounds. When organic compounds containing same functional group are arranged in series on the basis of their increasing molecular weight, having the difference of -CH2 (methylene group) in between two consecutive compounds, such series is called homologous series. Learn More

Nomenclature of Organic compounds

The systematic process of assigning an accurate name to a particular organic compound on the basis of scientific rules is known as nomenclature (naming of an organic compound). According to IUPAC nomenclature, the name of an organic compound consists of a prefix, word root, and suffix. Learn More

IUPAC Names of Hydrocarbons

The naming of various hydrocarbons according to the IUPAC rule is discussed in the lesson above. Learn More

Nomenclature of Compounds Containing Single Functional Group

The nomenclature of compounds containing single functional group can be done as shown in the lesson above. Learn More

Nomenclature of Compounds Containing Polyfunctional Group

If the parent chain contains more than one dissimilar functional group, the number of carbon atoms are counted from one end so as to give the lowest number to the functional group of higher priority. The naming of compounds containing polyfunctional group is shown above. Learn More


Compounds having same molecular formula but different physical and chemical properties due to different structures are known as isomers and the property itself is known as isomerism. There are two types of isomerism: Structural isomerism Stereo-isomerism Learn More

Organic Reactions and Preliminary Concept of Reaction Mechanism

In a chemical reaction, the reactant molecule undergoing attack is referred to as the substrate and the attacking species is the reagent. The substrate and the reagent interact to give products of the reaction. The concept of organic reactions and the mechanism of the reaction is discussed above. Learn More

Electronic Effects Affecting a Covalent Bond

The inductive effect (I-effect) refers to the polarity produced in a molecule as a result of higher electronegativity of one atom compared to another. An inductive effect is transmitted along a chain of carbon atoms, although it tends to be insignificant beyond the second carbon. It is a permanent effect. This note deals with the effect on a covalent bond due to the various electronic effects. Learn More

Types of Organic Reactions

Those reactions in which an atom or group of atoms attached to a carbon in the substrate molecule is replaced by another active atom or group of atoms is known as substitution reaction. Those reactions in which atoms or groups of atoms are simply added to a double or triple bond without the elimination of any atom or other molecules is called addition reactions. Removal of hydrogen and halogen from alkyl halide in the presence of an alcoholic solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide to give alkene compound is called as elimination or dehydrohalogenation reaction. Learn More

Orbital Concept of Bonding

A covalent bond between two atoms results from the overlap of an orbital of one atom with the orbital of another atom. When two orbital overlaps, they have the same region in space and a new orbital, called a molecular orbital (MO), is formed. Like an atomic orbital, a molecular orbital can accommodate only two electrons. A covalent bond is of two types. Learn More

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