Minerals ( Biomolecules )

Subject: Biology

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This note provides information about minerals and water.
Minerals ( Biomolecules )



Essential components of the cells and form about 2 - 3%. Help in metabolism and for growth and development of the body. They should be obtained regularly from the food.

Categories of Minerals.
There are about 25 types of minerals which are categorised under two groups.

Macro- molecules;

Macro- molecules
fig:Macro- molecules

They are required in large amount. Macromolecules are as follows,

  1. Calcium ( Ca )
    Used as fertilizers in the bone dust.
    Strength and rigidity to bones and teeth.
  2. Magnesium ( Mg )
    Form structure of chlorophyll pigment.
    Co -factor of enzymes like ATPase.
  3. Potassium( K )
    Helps in the conduction of nerve impulse.
    Maintains electrical potential across the membranes.
  4. Sulphur ( S )
    Synthsisproteins e.g. keratin
    Synthesis organic compound e.g. Co- enzyme A.
  5. Sodium ( Na )
    Balance anion/cation osmotic balance in cellular fluids.
    It acts as co - factor in photosynthesis and respiration.
  6. Nitrogen ( N )
    Synthesis proteins, nucleic acids and organic compounds.
    Synthesis of chlorophyll.
  7. Phosphorus ( P )
    Synthesize nucleic acids, ATP, and proteins.
    It is a constituent ob bone and teeth enamel.
  8. Chlorine ( Cl )
    Help in exchange of gases in tissue during respiration.
    Form a major component of blood plasma.



Some microelements are as follows,

  1. Copper
    Electron carrier in cytochrome oxidase.
    Help in the production of melanin.
  2. Iron ( Fe )
    Oxygen carrier as a haemo in haemoglobin and myoglobin.
    Electron carriers in cytochromes.
  3. Iodine ( I )
    An important constituent of the hormone thyroxine.
    Its deficiency leads to goitre. Cretinism in children.
  4. Manganese ( Mn )
    Important for oxidation of fatty acids.
    Important for enzymes, in respiration and photosynthesis as mitochondria are rich in manganese.



Most abundant inorganic compound in the cells. It occupies 60%- 70% of the body weight and in the protoplasm, it occupies 75% - 90%. It plays very vital role in the maintenance of life.


Structure of Water
fig:Structure of Water

The molecular formula of water is H2O. It is formed by reaction of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It is a dipole because oxygen atom shares two hydrogen atoms. The water molecule is slightly positive and slightly negative.The electronegative oxygen atoms attract the single electron of the hydrogen forming a lattice structure.


  1. Water is a universal solvent.
  2. Some reactions in the body are ionic in nature that takes place in water.
  3. Water balances the body temperature.
  4. Conduction of water in the plant is possible due to its high surface tension and cohesion property.
  5. It acts as a medium for transport of some substances in the body.

Things to remember
  • Minerals play important role in metabolism and essential for growth and development of the body.
  • Macroelements are calcium, potassium,sodium, etc.
  • Microelements are cobalt, iron, zinc, etc.
  • Water is most abundant inorganic compounds in the cells.
  • The water molecule if formed by the combination of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen.
  • Water acts as the best solvent, reagent, temperature stabilizer and high surface tension.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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