Blood vessels, which carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the different part of the body, are called arteries. They constitute a system called arterial system. Truncus arterious gives two branches right aortic trunk and left aortic trunk. Each aortic trunk again divides into three branches-
It divides into-
External carotid: it is the smaller branch that supplies blood to the tongue and lowers jaw.
Internal carotid: it supplies blood to buccal cavity and brain. It consists swelling at the base called carotid labyrinth.
Two systemic arches move upward and then curve backward to join each other in the heart to form dorsal aorta. It is the largest of all three arches. Before meeting each other each systemic arch gives-
Before meeting each other each systemic arch gives:
Oesophageal artery: it supplies blood to the oesophagus.
Occipito vertebral artery: it supplies blood to head and vertebral column.
Subclavian: It arises externally just below the occipital- vertebral artery and supply blood to shoulder and forelimb.
Branches of the dorsal aorta: From the junction of two systemic arches coeliac – mesenteric artery arise which gives following branches.
Coeliac artery arises and gives two branches:
Hepatic artery: it supplies blood to the liver.
Gastric artery: It supplies blood to the stomach.
Anterior mesenteric artery gives four branches:
Duodenal artery: it supplies blood to the duodenum.
Intestinal artery: it supplies blood to the small intestine (ileum).
Spleenic artery: it supplies blood to spleen (meeting place of ileum and rectum).
Posterior mesenteric artery- It is Long Branch and supplies blood to the rectum.
Branches from dorsal aorta;The dorsal aorta runs backward and gives following branches-
Gonadial artery: it supplies blood to testes and ovary.
Renal artery: it supplies blood to the kidney.
Branches formed by the division of dorsal aorta;At the end, the dorsal aorta runs posterior and bifurcates into right and left common iliac arteries. Each of iliac arteries gives,
Femoral artery: it supplies blood to hip and thigh.
Sciatic artery: it supplies blood to lower region of hind legs.
Hypogastric artery: it supplies blood to urinary bladder
Epigastric artery: it supplies blood to the dorsal wall of abdomen
It divides into,
Pulmonary artery: it receives deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body and opens into lungs.
Cutaneous artery: it supplies oxygenated blood to the skin.
Venous system of frog
Blood vessels, which carry the deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body to the heart, are called veins. They constitute a system called venous system. Venous system of frog can be studied under two heading
Pulmonary Venous system:
Blood from right and left lungs come to the left auricle / atrium of the heart through pulmonary veins. Only pulmonary veins have oxygenated blood while all the other veins have deoxygenated blood.
Systemic venous system:
It consists of three large veins, two anterior vena cava known as precavals and one posterior vena cava which is known as postcaval. Precavals are two large veins which collect blood from the anterior parts of head, body, and forelimbs. It is formed by the unions of three veins,
External jugular vein: it is formed by the two veins,
Lingual vein: it receives deoxygenated blood from mouth and tongue.
Mandibular vein: it receives deoxygenated blood from the lower jaw.
Innominate vein: it is formed by two veins,
Internal jugular vein: it receives deoxygenated blood from eye, brain, and skull.
Subscapular vein- it receives deoxygenated blood from shoulder and arm.
Subclavian vein:it is formed by two veins,
Brachial veins: it receives deoxygenated blood from forelimb. Musculo -cutaneous vein: it receives deoxygenated blood from muscles and skin.
Post caval collects blood from liver, kidney, viscera and hindlimbs. It opens into the posterior end of sinus venous. It consists of following veins,
Hepatic veins: it receives deoxygenated blood from livers. Renal veins: it receives blood from kidneys. Gonadial veins: it receives blood from ovary and testes.
Portal venous system
Set of veins which collect the blood from one organ and discharges it into another organ are called portal veins. The set of veins draining their blood into the liver is called hepatic portal whereas the set of veins opening into the kidneys are called renal portal system. A portal vein originates from capillaries and terminates as capillaries so it is also called as double capillaries system.
It receives blood from all part of hindlimbs through the femoral vein and sciatic vein that joins together in coelom forming renal portal veins which run outside the kidneys and receives blood from a dorso-lumbar vein. A pair of iliac veins arises from the femoral vein that fuses together forming anterior abdominal vein that opens into liver with the hepatic vein. The renal portal veins break into the capillaries after entering into the kidney. This capillaries form 5 or 6 renal veins on emerging from the kidneys and opens into the post caval vein. All these veins form renal portal system. Here, the harmful substances like urea, carbon dioxide, etc are separated by kidneys are passed outside as urine.
Hepatic portal system
The blood vessels (veins) bringing blood from various organs of the digestive system (stomach, duodenum, illiums, rectum, pancreas and spleen etc) combine to form a large vein. This is known as the hepatic portal vein. In the liver, it unites with the abdominal vein and then divides and redivides into capillaries to allow transfer of some of the digested food into the liver for storage. From the liver, it finally enters the post caval which carries blood to the sinus venous.
Things to remember
Internal carotid has a swelling at its origin point called carotid labyrinth.
Systemic arch is the largest of all three arch
Sub- clavian artery supply blood to the shoulder and arm of the forelimbs
Gonadial artery supplies blood to the testes and ovary.
The cutaneous artery carries the deoxygenated blood to the skin.
The pulmonary artery carries the deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Internal jugular collects the blood from the brain, eye, and skull.
Renal veins collect blood from kidneys.
Portal venous system is known as double capillaries system.
The hepatic system collects blood from all parts of the intestine.
It includes every relationship which established among the people.
There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.