Subject: Biology

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Introduction to Ecology

This note contains detail information about ecology along with its branches and factors. According to Odum, ecology is the scientific study of structure and function of nature. According to the Ernst Hackel, ecology is the scientific study of interactions of organisms with the components of the physical environment as well as with other organisms. According to Krebs(1985), ecology is the scientific study of interactions that determines the distribution and abundance of organisms. Learn More


This note contains detail information about its types and its influence on organisms. The degree of hotness or coldness of a body is called temperature. Temperature is one of the most essential and changeable environmental factors which influence all forms of life. Temperature generally influences the behavioural pattern of animals. The very low and high (both) temperature retard the growth and development of plants. The high temperature causes heat injury whereas low temperature causes freezing injury. Learn More

Climatic factors; Light

This note contains detail information about climatic factor light. The climatic factors are non-living factors which are responsible for determining the climatic conditions of an area. The climatic factors include light, temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, fire, atmosphere etc. Light is the main source of energy in the earth for the existence of life. Learn More

Climatic factors; Humidity and Wind

This note contains detail information about wind and humidity along with its ecological effects. The amount of water vapour present in a unit volume of air is called absolute humidity. The amount of water vapour present in a unit volume of air is called absolute humidity. The amount of water vapour in the air at specific temperature compared to the maximum water vapour that the air can hold without condensing is called relative humidity. The moving current of air is called a wind. Learn More

Climatic factors; Fire and Atmosphere

This note contains detail information about fire and atmosphere along with its importance. Fire is naturally caused by lightning or volcanic activities, but most of the fire is caused by human activities. The atmosphere is the different gases envelope which surrounds the earth. It contains different types of gases like; oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gases. Learn More

Climatic factors; Precipitation

This note contains detail information about climatic factor precipitation along with its effects on an organism. Precipitation is the product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapour that falls on the ground. It includes all moistures in the form of rain, snow, hail, sleet, dew, frost, drizzle etc. The precipitation depends on the season, wind, air, pressure and temperature. Learn More

Edaphic Factors

This note contains detail information about types of soil and its influence on an organism. The factors concerned with the soil are called edaphic factor. The soil is the upper layer of the earth which provides nutrients, water supply, anchorage to the plants. It is the mixture of inorganic matters and organic matters. Inorganic matters are derived by weathering process whereas organic matters are derived from the decomposition of dead remains. Learn More

Topographic factors

This note contains detail information about topography and its effect on organisms. The factors concerned with topography or physical features of an area are called topographic factors. Topographic factors include height, direction of slope, steepness of the slope. The topographic factors are also called indirect factors as they influence the growth and development of organisms by bringing variations in climatic factors. Learn More

Biotic factor

This note contains detail information about the biotic factor of an environment. Organisms present in the environment which is constantly interacting with one another are called biotic factors. They include all plants, animals, microbes . The biotic factor is divided into two categories on the basis of their nutritional point of view they are; autotrophs and heterotrophs. Learn More

Biotic Interactions

This note contains detail information about biotic interaction i.e. positive, negative and neutral interaction. The activity of living organisms which may cause the marked effect on the survival of others are called biotic interactions. The interactions may be food, shelter or substratum. Similarly, it may be intraspecific or interspecific. The interactions between two different species in which both the species are benefited from each other is called mutualism. Learn More

Concept of Community and Succession

This note includes information about the community with its characteristics and composition and information about succession. A community is an association of a number of living organisms living in a certain prescribed area or physical habitat with usually of different species. The gradual replacement of one type of ecological community by another in the same area, involving a series of orderly changes, especially in the dominant vegetation. Hult (1885) was the first person to use the term 'succession.' Learn More

Biogeochemical cycle

This note provides information about the Biogeochemical cycle, Nitrogen cycle, and the Carbon cycle. The cyclic movements of elements through the ecosystem i.e. through the abiotic and biotic environment is called biogeochemical cycle. The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is called the nitrogen cycle. Carbon is an essential constituent of all organic compounds found in living beings. Its sources are the atmosphere, water, carbonates in the rock and fossil fuels. Learn More

Ecological imbalance and their consequences

This note provides information about ecological imbalance and its consequences, greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. The greenhouse effect refers to circumstances where the short wavelengths of visible light from the sun pass through a transparent medium (i.e. envelope of gases CO, CO2, SO2, etc.) and are absorbed, but the longer wavelength of the infrared radiation from the heated objects are unable to pass through that medium and are trapped causing more heating and a higher resultant temperature. The ozone layer is a deep layer in earth’s atmosphere that contains ozone which is a naturally occurring molecule containing three oxygen atoms. Learn More

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