Introduction to Angiosperm

Subject: Biology

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Overview

Angiosperm are well developed and highly evolved group of plants in which there is seeds enclosed within the fruit. This note contains detail information of angiosperm along with its characters.
Introduction to Angiosperm

Angios: Enclosed

Sperma: Seeds

Angiosperm is well developed and highly evolved group of plants in which there are seeds enclosed within the fruit. They have well-differentiated root, stem, and leaves and also have well developed vascular tissue.

General characters of Angiosperm

  • Smallest Angiosperm: Wolffia (0.1 mm)
  • Tallest Angiosperm: Eucalyptus regnans (130.5m-435 ft)
  • Largest: Ficus benghalennsis
  • Angiosperm is autotrophic in nature, but there are some angiosperms which show heterotrophic nature with either parasitic or saprophytic mode of nutrition. Eg; Parasitic; Cuscuta, Saprophytic, Neottia.
  • Angiosperm shows a distinct alternation of a generation with dominating saprophytic phase.

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source:biologicalexceptions.blogspot.com

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fig: Wolffia,Parasitic,Neotia

Angiosperms show three different forms and habit i.e herb, shrub, and tree.

  • Herbs are the small sized plant with soft, weak and pliable stems having less or no branches. Eg; Mustard, Bamboo etc
  • Shrubs are medium sized woody bushy plants having branches arising near the base. Eg; Rose, Marigold etc
  • Trees are large sized hardly woody plants with distinct trunk having branches arising near the apex.

On the basis of lifespan, angiosperms are of three types:

  • Annual: They complete their life within few weeks to one year.
  • Biennal: They complete their life within 2 years.
  • Perennial: They can survive for more than two years. It is of two types. Those plants which flower many times in a lifetime is polycarpic and those which flowers once in a lifetime is monocarpic.

On the basis of water requirements, angiosperms are of three types:

  • Hydrophytes: Hydron means water and phyton mean plants. So, literally, we can say the plant that hydrophytes are the plants that grow the well insufficient supply of water. Eg: Lotus
  • Mesophytes: Meson means moderate and phyton means plants. So, plants that grow well in a moderate or normal supply of water is called mesophyte. Eg: Maize
  • Xerophytes: Xerox means dry or arid. So, those plants which grow well in dry or arid habitat is Xerophytes. Eg: Cactus

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source:www.shutterstock.com

fig:lotus,Maize,Cactus

Things to remember
  • Angiosperm are well developed and highly evolved group of plants in which there is seeds enclosed within the fruit. 
  • They have well differentiated root, stem and leaves and also have well developed vascular tissue.
  • Angiosperm are autotrophic in nature, but there are some angiosperms which show heterotrophic nature with either parasitic or saprophytic mode of nutrition.Eg; Parasitic; Cuscuta, Saprophytic; Neottia.
  • Angiosperm shows a distinct alternation of generation with dominating saprophytic phase.
  • Those plants which flower many times in a lifetime is polycarpic and those which flowers once in a lifetime is monocarpic.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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