Family-Cruciferae

Subject: Biology

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Overview

Family-Cruciferae includes 350 genera and 3200 species. This note contains detail information about family Cruciferae.
Family-Cruciferae

Class: Dicotyledonae

Sub-class: Polypetalae

Series: Thalamiflorae

Order: Parietales

Family: Brassicaceae

Common name: Mustard family

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Distribution

This family includes 350 genera and 3200 species. The members are cosmopolitan in distribution however they are dominant in temperate and other colder parts of the world. Most of the members are used as vegetables and seeds of some plants are used for oil production.

Vegetative characters

Habit

Annual (Brassica), biennial(Raphanus), perennial(Cheiranthes), herbs, sometimes under shrubs(Farsetia), mostly terrestrial, sometimes aquatic(Nasturtium officiate). The plants possess pungent sap having sulphur containing glucosides.

Roots

Branched tap root system, sometimes root may become modified into different forms due to the storage of food materials such as; fusiform (Raphanus Sativus), napiform (Brassica rapa).

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Stem

Aerial, erect, with distinct nodes and internodes, branched, sometimes unbranched, herbaceous, rarely woody, cylindrical, solid, glabrous, sometimes pubescent, sometimes stem gets reduced into flattened disc (Raphanus sativus) or sometimes the stem becomes modified into the corm-like structure (Brassica olearacea var Caulorapa).

Leaf

Cauline and ramal, sometimes radical(Raphanus sativus), exstipulate, alternate, sometimes opposite, the lower leaf is petiolate, the upper leaf is sessile, simple, sometimes pinnately compound (Nasturtium officinate), lower leaves lyrate, upper leaves hastate or lanceolate, pubescent, sometimes glabrous, unicostate reticulate venation.

Floral characters

Inflorescence

Racemose, typical raceme, sometimes corymb (Iberis Amara)

Flower

Ebracteate, bracteate in Nasturtium montanum, pedicellate, complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, zygomorphic in Iberis Amara, tetramerous, hypogynous.

Calyx

Sepals 2+2, 4 sepals arranged in two whorls, polysepalous, imbricate aestivation, petaloid or green, inferior.

Corolla

Petals 4, polypetalous, cruciform, four petals arranged in cross-like manner and each petal differentiated into limb and claw, valvate aestivation, equal sized but unequal sized in (Iberis Amara), sometimes petals are modified into or reduced into scales (Coronopus) or sometimes petals are completely absent (Lepidium), inferior.

Androecium

Stamens 2+ 4, polyandrous, tetradynamous (presence of six stamens arranged in two whorls outer two with short filaments and inner four with long filaments. Sometimes either four stamens (Nasturtiumofficinate) or 2 stamens (Coronopus Didymus) up to 16 stamens (Megacarpeapolyandra) may be present. Anther dithecous, basifixed, outer two introrse, inner four extrorse or sometimes introrse only, inferior, nectary glands may be present in some species, dehiscence by longitudinal slits.

Gynoecium

Carpels(2), bi carpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, unilocular but becomes bilocular due to the presence of false septum called replum, one or many ovules in parietal placentation, style simple, short. Stigma simple or capitate or bifid.

Fruit

Siliqua or silicula or lomentum(Raphanus).

Floral formula

Ebr. K2+2 C4 A2+4 G(2)

Importance of mustard

Economic Importance

Vegetables:

  • Brassica campest rais
  • Brassica rapa (Turnip)
  • Raphanus sativus (Radish)
  • Brassica oleracea var.botrytis (Cauliflower)
  • Brassica oleracea var.capitata (Cabbage)

Oil-yielding plants

  • Brassica campest rais (Mustard)
  • Brassica hirta (Yellow Mustard)

Ornamental plants

  • Iberis Amara (Candytuft)
  • Cheiranthus cheiri (Wallflower)

Spices

  • Brassica nigra (Black mustard)
  • Brassica juncea (Indian mustard)

Floral Diagram

Things to remember
  •  The members are cosmopolitan in distribution however they are dominant in temperate and other colder parts of the world. 
  • The plants possess pungent sap having sulphur containing glucosides.
  • This family include 350 genera and 3200 species. 
  •  Most of the members are used as vegetables and seeds of some plants are used for oil production.

 

  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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