Subject: Social Studies
The constitution of Nepal has divided Nepal into 7 federal states.
This state covers the Himalayan, Hilly and Terai regions of Eastern Nepal. The tallest peak in the world, Mt. Everest falls in this state, as does Mt. Kanchanjunga, Mt. Makalu, Mt. Choyu, etc. Sagarmatha National Reserve, Makalu & Barun National Reserves also fall here. This state covers about 18% (25,905 sq. km) of Nepal’s total area. The census of 2068 puts the population of this state at approx. 45 lakhs. The ethnic groups of Rai, Limbu, Lepcha, Rajbansi, Koche, Meche, Bahun, Chhetri, Sherpa, etc reside in this state. Baraha Chhetra, Pathibhara, Halesi Mahadev, Chintang Devi, etc are the major religious destinations. The main food crops are Rice, Corn and Wheat. The main cash crops are Jute, Tea, Cane, Tobacco, etc. Jute mills, sugar factories, cotton cloth factories, tea plantations, etc. are the industries that are majority in this state. High agricultural area, high contribution in the GDP from agricultural products, high literacy rate, etc are the main features of this state.
This state hosts 8 districts in the terai region, which extends from Parsa to Saptari. This state covers approx. 7% (9661 sq. km) area. Approx. 54 lakh people reside here, which is about 20% of total population of Nepal. The main ethnic groups are Yadav, Tharu, Dalit, Muslim, etc. Every district in this state has majority of people from the Madhesi community. East-West highway and Hulaki highway are the main roads that pass through this state. Majority of the industries in Nepal fall in this region, so it can be said that this is a rather developed state in terms of industries. Birgunj, Lahan, Rajbiraj, Hariwan, Chandranigahapur, Simara, Janakpur, etc are the main industrial cities in this state. Ramjanaki Temple, Chinnamasta Devi Temple, Gadhimai Temple, etc. are the main religious destinations here. Most of the business enters the country through the Birgung port. To the north of this state lies the Chure forest range.
Most of the geography of this state is flat. Along with high population and high per capita income, this state has highest cultivable land to area ratio. The contribution of this state to the GDP is via agriculture, fish farming, and industries. Maithali, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Nepali, etc. are some of the languages spoken in this state.
Nepal’s capital city Kathmandu lies in this state, and most of the area is of Hilly and Himalayan topography. Ganesh, Langtang, Jugal, Gaurishankar, etc. are the mountain ranges in this state. As per area, this state covers 14% (20,300 sq. km) of the total area of Nepal. Census of 2068 BS puts the population of this state at 55lakhs, which is 21% of total population of Nepal. Sherpa and Bhote ethnic communities are majority in the Himalayan region. Newars have the majority in the Kathmandu Valley, while other districts have Kirel, Tamang, Magar, Tharu, etc. The main cities of this state are Kathmandu, Khaktapur. Lalitpur, Banepa, Hetauda, Chitwan, Dhulikhel, etc. Gosaikunda, Pashupatinath, Syambhu, Budanilkantha, Baudhanath, Dolakha Bhimsen, Dakshinkali, Palanchowk Bhagwati, etc. are the main religious destinations.
This state has the most number of youth citizens. There are various infrastructures like electricity, drinking water, education, roads, etc. more developed than other states. This state is leading in education, mining, and contribution to the GDP.
Himalayan ranges Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Himchuli, etc. fall in this region. Fewa, Rupa, Begnas, Tilicho Lakes are the main lakes in the region. Manang and Mustang are considered to be the natural and heavenly locations. Seti, Kaligandaki, Marsyangdi, etc. rivers irrigate the land in this state. This state covers 14% (21,504 sq. km) of area, and has a population of 24 lakhs according to the census of 2068 BS. Kaligandaki and Marsyangdi rivers have big hydroelectricity stations. Pokhara, Bandipur, Muktinath, Gorkha, and Manakamana are some of the tourist attractions. The main ethnic groups in this area are Magar, Bahun, Gurung, Chhetri, Thakali, Dura, etc. The religious destinations are Manakamana, Bindyabasini, Hrisikesh, Muktinath, Baglung Kalika, Galeshwor, etc.
This state has sparse population to the land ratio. This state has high literacy rate, high hydroelectricity potential, and high access to drinking water. This state has snowfall covering many areas, and with less agriculture and less road access, the contribution to GDP is low.
This state has mostly terai and hilly areas, and doesn’t have any Himalayan ranges. Rivers like Rapti, Tinau, Badigad and lakes like Satyawati, Barkune, Jagdishpur can be found in this state. Big valleys like Dang, Deukhuri, Rampur, Madi, etc. lies in this state. It covers 15% (22,288 sq. km) of Nepal’s area, and has a population of 49 lakhs according to the 2068 BS census. Jhimruk Hydroelectricity project is stationed in this state. Main business hubs in this state are Nepalgunj, Butwal, Bhairahawa, Krishnanagar, Tansen, Lamahi, Kohalpur, Rajapur, Bijuwar, etc. The religious and tourist attractions here are Lumbini, Ridi, Resunga, Swargadwari, Thakurdwara, Bageswori, etc. Rivers Sikta, Babai, Banganga, Tinau, etc. provide with irrigation projects that help the agricultural aspect of this state. Nepal Sanskrit and Lumbini Bouddha Universities lie here as well. Ethnic groups of Magar, Tharu, Bahun, Chhetri, etc. are main residents here, and the southern parts of the state have citizens of Madhesi community in large numbers. There are many roadways and agricultural lands in the state.
This Midwestern state covers the hilly and Himalayan region, so the environment is dry and cold. Kanjirowa and Patarasi mountains can be found here. Big and beautiful Rara and Phoksundo lakes fall under this state, and it covers approx. 20% (29,984 sq. km) of Nepal’s area. The population of this state is approx. 11.5lakhs according to the census of 2068 BS. Main business locations here are Birendranagar, Chhinchu, Dailekh, Salli Bazar, Jumla, etc. and herbs like Yarsagumba, Okhar, ,etc can be found here. Ratna, Karnali and Chhinchu-Jajarkot are the main highways in the state. Religious destinations here are Deuti Bajyei, Chandan Nath, Shey Gumba, Kankre Bihar, etc. The ethnic groups of Thakuri, Chhetri, Bahun, Dalit, etc . are in the majority here. There are enough free grassy landscapes suitable for animal husbandry and herbs cultivation. Large area and forests are the main features of this state, with Tila, Bheri, Sani Bheri, Humla Karnali, Mugu Karnali, etc. being the main rivers that flow through which have great electricity generating potential.
This state lies in the far western part of the country. It hosts Shuklafanta Wildlife Reserve, Khaptad National Park, Mt. Api, Mt. Saipal, etc. It covers 13% (19,439 sq. km) of Nepal’s area, and has a population of 25lakhs as per the 2068 BS. The development potential are carried by Tanakpur Barrage, Pancheswor Cooperative Project, West Seti Project, etc. BhimDatta Nagar, Dhangadi, Siligadi, Attariya, Tikapur, SanfeBagar and Dadheldhura are the main business cities in the state. The main crops planted here are Rice, Wheat, Millet, Barley, Maize, etc. The citizens here are from Bahun, Chhetri, Tharu, Dalit, etc. ethnic groups. The main religious destinations are Ugratara, Shaileshwori, Badhimalika, etc. Most of the population in this state moves to India for employment opportunities. The main features of this state are connection to roads in the terai region, easy access to India, and vast agricultural potential.
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