Subject: Social Studies

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A refugee is a person who flees to another country. There are more than one lakh refugees in Nepal. There are some problems of refugee such as adulteration, fraud, theft, deforestation, pollution and etc. This note has information about refugee problem.

Refugees are those persons who flee due to fear of life and property and take shelter in another country. People are forced to flee due to political causes, terrorism, communicable right, flood, drought, earthquake etc.

Refugee in Nepal:

Since 1990, ten lakh eight thousand refugees are still living in our country. Around 40-50 thousand refugees are taken under the initiation of UN. 20,000 Tibetans, few thousands of Afghans and few thousands are from Somalia. Rest of the refugees are from Bhutan.

Problems created by Refugee in Nepal:

Social Problem:

1. Food Adulteration
2. Theft, Robbery
3. Fraud case
4. Flesh Trading

Environmental Problem:

1. Deforestation and pollution
2. Conflict with local people
3. Unemployment to the local people Increment of the price


1. Foreign currency received to support Nepal's effort to sustain refugee.
2. Nepal is appreciated and supported by international communities.
3. The host country can get skilled manpower.
4. Host country gets employment opportunities in different international agencies.
5. Host country gets economic support in the name of refugees.

Causes of Bhutanese Refugee:

1. Due to inspiration of 1990 mass movement of Nepal, Bhutanese were inspired to launch movement for democracy.
2. Bhutanese Government confiscated Nepalese property, leaders were jailed and Nepalese people were forced to leave Bhutan.
3. Nepalese origin was tortured and created an unfriendly environment to stay in Bhutan.
4. Bhutanese refugee entered into Nepal from eastern boarder and UNHCR, WFO and several different NGOs and INGOs are helping them with 10 million dollars every year.

Ways to solve Bhutanese Problem:

1. Top level negotiation between Bhutanese and Nepalese government.
2. India should take interest to solve the problem.
3. International patience should be created.
4. Refugee problem should be raised in UN general Assembly.
5. Right now 63,000 Bhutanese people are living in Nepal and about 50,000 refugees settled in different Europeans countries.

Things to remember
  • A refugee is a persona who flee due to fear of life and property and take shelter in another country.
  • Problems created by refugee are food adulteration, robbery, a fraud case, unemployment, pollution, increased in price etc.
  • Foreign currency received to support Nepal's effort to sustain refugee.
  • Bhutanese Government confiscated Nepalese property, leaders were jailed and Nepalese people were forced to leave Bhutan.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Refugee
Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal
Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal.
Real Story of Bhutanese Refugee
The Truth About Refugees
Questions and Answers

The conflicts in Bhutanese refugee camps lead to disorder and lack of peace in the society.

Bhutanese refugees have taken shelter in Nepal because of the following reasons:
  1. The Bhutanese people who were originally from Nepal were treated badly by the government and forced to adopt Bhutanese way of life.
  2. They could not resist atrocities forced by the Bhutanese government so they are residing in Nepal as refugees.
  3. They were forced to leave their country for the fear of persecution because of their race and religion.
  4. As they were originally from Nepal, it's easier to adjust here adopting Nepalese lifestyle than other countries.

Refugee is a person who is forced to leave his/her homeland because of political crisis, civil war or any natural calamity. They are compelled to take shelter in other country later on.United Nation High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) is playing vital role for solving the problems of refugees throughout the world. It works in the conflicted areas of the world where people are trapped and forced to become refugee. Since its inception in 1951 AD, it has been working in three phases to solve the problem. The first phase is emergency phase. In this phase its prime concern is to rescue the people from conflicted areas and provide them food, clothes, and shelter for temporary period. The second phase, it tries to provide them with education, health facilities too. In the third phase of its work, it tries to settle the refugees permanently. It either creates the environment to send them back or manages any other third country for their settlement permanently. In our country Nepal too, it has been actively working for the management for Bhutanese refugees along with WFP.

The effects caused by Bhutanese in our country are:
  1. Nepal has to divert its attention to those refugees also. So the government cannot fully give its attention to Nepalese citizens.
  2. Nepal has to waste its economy on other citizens when its own citizen are lacking the resources.
  3. It has hindered the path of maintaining healthy relation between Nepal and Bhutan.
  4. The environment of eastern Nepal is degrading day by day.
The refugee problems at present are as follows:
  1. They cannot return to their country due to fear of growing terrorism.
  2. They are not well treated in the host country.
  3. They have no property or job and are not accepted easily by the host country.
  4. The factors compelling people to become a refugee are:
  5. Natural disaster or calamities like volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslides etc.
  6. Wars, clashes ethnic violence or policy of racial discrimination.
  7. Harsh/rule of the government which compelled the people to leave the country and take asylum in another country.
Bhutanese refugee is a problem for Nepal because
  1. It is creating crisis in infrastructure facilities like education, health, transportation etc.
  2. It is deteriorating diplomatic relation.
  3. It is creating environment imbalance.
  4. Unemployment problem is also being created.
  5. It is difficult to provide house for these refugees in such a small country.
  6. Refugees may settle in Nepal permanently.

A person politically threatened, biased or suppresses, affected by the result of war, affected by any type of natural calamities happens to become a refugee.
It is a worldwide problem. UNO has a specialized agency to work for the refugees. UNHCR overlooks all the refugees throughout the world. It takes accountability of the number of refugees. It tries to make a supportive environment to hold diagues between the respective countries in different levels to enable the refries sagely return to home. On the other hand UNHCR works coordinating with FAO, WHO. They provide regular food supplies to the refugees and continual health campaigns so that they are given regular health treatment at any concerned areas their accommodation management.

In my opinion the problem of Bhutanese refugee can be solved through bilateral talks between Nepal and India under the mediation of UNO.

The Bhutanese came to Nepal as refugees in 1990s. They had been made victims of political suppression, infective, misconducts by the Bhutanese government. They have been sheltered in Morang and Jhapa. There has already been nearly two decades but their attempts of returning to their home have still not been successful. More than 14/15 attempts have been in the diplomatic level to solve. The places where they have been camped have been affected by social and environmental effects. They are:
Social effects
  1. They have been facing lack of money, good health, social frustration and backwardness.
  2. Social crimes like robbery, prostitution activities have been increased as an outcome of lack of employment.
Environmental effects
  1. The place have been crowed and the nearly jungles are deforested for their survival.
  2. Lackings of food stuff, are pollution have increased there.
Girl trafficking and prostitution are obviously some black spots of our society. These evil practices get chance to increase because of unemployment, poverty, helpless and weak implementation of law and order.

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