Subject: Social Studies
The Rana regime ended on 7th Falgun, 2007 B.S. and democracy was declared. Party politics began in Nepal in the leadership of Nepali Congress and Nepal Communist Party. The decade between 2007 B.S. to 2017 B.S. is thus known as the party and democratic politics history. The interim government rule was started on 17th Chaitra, 2007 B.S. with coalition between Nepali Congress and Ranas. This ensured a citizen involvement on the government rule and laws. In 2008 B.S., student leader Chiniya Kaji was killed. The Ranas and Congress passed blame to each other. They were not on good terms since the beginning of the coalition. B.P. Koirala issued a statement saying that democracy couldn’t be properly achieved if Mohan Shamser was in the ministry cabinet. Speaking to the Radio, he expressed his dissatisfaction that the true result of the revolution couldn’t be met until the Ranas were still in the ruling government. On 25th Kartik 2008 B.S., the 5 ministers representing Nepali Congress gave their resignations from the government. The day after, Mohan Shamser was forced to resign as well and the ministry cabinet was dissolved.
Singular Nepali Congress Ministry Cabinet: After the joint coalition government failed, King Tribhuwan announced a 14 member ministry on 1st Mangsir 2008 B.S. led by Matrika Prasad Koirala. The following were the target of this cabinet:
Call for a Democratic United Front and All-Party Government: The Democratic United Front was formed with the involvement of various parties and organizations existing then including Nepal Praja Parisad. They put pressure on the government for an all-party government. B.P Koirala was against his own brother, Prime Minister Matrika, saying that the party president and Prime Minister could not be the same person. Dr. KI Singh had started his revolution by then. This was the reason he was captured, branded a dacoit, and imprisoned in Singha Durbar. On 8th and 9th Magh of 2008 B.S., Dr. KI Singh supporters stormed and attacked Singha Durbar and freed him. This marked the end of the government yet again.
Consulting Donors Government Formation: King Tribhuwan, according to advice from his consulting donors, formed a 5 member government including Keshar Shamser on 30th Shrawan 2009 B.S. The 5 members would answer only to the king and had to get permission from the king to implement any plans. The political parties were against this government. The government organs could not function properly by this system. International intervention also increased. Farmers revolted in the east led by Nepali Congress. Finally, this government was dissolved on 2nd Aswin 2010 B.S.
Rastriya Praja Party led Government: Matrika Prasad Koirala had separated from Nepali Congress and formed Rastriya Praja Party. King Tribhuwan announced the 5 member government led by Matrika Pd. Koirala on 2nd Aswin 2010 B.S. Entry of Indian Army in Nepal with arms, protests against the Koshi Planning Agreement, BhimDutta Panta’s revolution and his death in 7th Bhadra 2010 B.S. in Dadheldhura, etc. were the mitigating factors for the end of this government. Matrika Pd. Koirala submitted his resignation on 19th Falgun 2011 B.S.
King Mahendra’s Direct Rule and Royal Advisors Government: King Tribhuwan deceased on 30th Falgun 2011 B.S. and his son Mahendra was crowned the king on 4th Chaitra 2012 B.S. Mahendra formed an advisory government on 1st Baishakh 2012 B.S. under the leadership of Sardar Gunjman Singh. King Mahendra started direct rule seeking advice from the 5 member committee. This government was run until 12th Magh 2012 B.S.
Tanka Prasad and Dr. KI Singh led Governments: A 7 member government was formed on 13th Magh 2012 B.S. under the leadership of Tanka Prasad Acharya. Extreme economic depression, ban on newspapers and media, and failure to conduct elections led to Tanka Prasad’s resignation. This government was dissolved on 31st Asar 2014 B.S. King Mahendra then recalled Dr. KI Singh, who was living in China as an exile, and formed a 11 member government under his leadership on 11th Shrawan 2014 B.S. Due to various misfortunes, this government was removed on 29th Kartik 2014 B.S.
Subarna Shamser led Government: King Mahendra ruled directly from 29th Kartik 2014 B.S. to 2nd Jestha 2015 B.S. An interim government was formed including 6 members on 2nd Jestha 2015 B.S. led by Subarna Shamser. A 5 member constitution development committee was formed on 3rd Chaitra 2015 under the leadership of Bhagwati Prasad Singh, and including some foreign aides. This committee prepared a constitution and it was declared as Nepal’s Constitution 2015 B.S. on 1st Falgun 2015 B.S. A general election was held from 7th Falgun 2015 B.S. for 109 constituencies. This government was dissolved on 2nd Jestha 2016 B.S.
First General Election and BP Koirala led First Elected Government: The first constitutional general election was fought for 109 seats. Only 9 political parties participated in this election. The final result of this election was announced on 28th Baishakh 2016 B.S. Nepali Congress won 74 seats out of 109 seats. BP Koirala was elected the Prime Minister and a 19 member government was formed on 13th Jestha 2016 B.S. This government was in effect until 1st Poush 2017 B.S.
I would plan in the following ways to observe democracy day on 7 Falgun:
The tenure of Tanka Prasad Acharya (in 2012 BS) was better than other as he was able to introduce the concept of five year plan, establish Nepal Rastra Bank and Supreme Court.
The two social reforms during the period of 2007 BS to 2017 BS are:
The system which was introduced by king Mahendra was against the democratic norms and values. It was party less system so the political parties of Nepal continued their movement against the Panchayat System.
The two characteristics of Interim Rule Act are as follows:
Bhim Datta Panta was a great contributor during the period of 2007's revolution. He was unsatisfied with the Delhi agreement and continued armed movement in the western front against the Ranas.
One of the features of the Interim constitution of 2007 B.S was that it was the first constitution in the history of Nepal to have been enforced.
The names of the prime ministers nominated between the periods of 2008-2013 B.S were Matrika Prasad Koirala and Tanka Prasad Acharya respectively.
A retired police officer who had experienced the perplexity and effects of politics from 2007 to 2017 B. S. was interviewed. He was asked the following questions and the answer he gave follows the questions.
Q. What were the epic causes behind the movement of 2007 BS?
Well, there were Ranas' rulings over the countries for more than a hundred years. They were cruel and had adopted family rule. King himself was with no power and wanted to throw Rana regime permanently away. Nepali Congress was against Rana regime and started to revolt. People were suppressed and their rights were not protected. So, the movement of 2007 took place in the country against dictatorship of Ranas and to establish multi party democracy.
Q. How was the political system immediately after 2007 B.S. in the country?
It was far better. King held his power back. A new government in premiership of Mohan Shamsher was formed. Nepali Congress also joined the government. People had better rights. Decision on state matters would be made after discussions. But there were no stable governments formed and political objectives seem unclear.
Q. Sir, how did you play your role then? Was it difficult to support the politics as a police officer?
Very interesting question, it was very tough time for me. I was in favor of democracy. That could not be problematic upto 2017B.S. But, after that I had only two options. Either I have to be in the force and support the government or give up the job and involve in politics. But, it is very interesting that I chose none of them. I preferred the third one. It was to be in the force and help the political leaders secretly.
Q. How do you comment on the steps of King Mahendra on first poush 2017 B.S.?
It was terrific. It had to not be taken. but, he dared. It brought up a volcano in politics. I personally did not support it as it was very undemocratic and against people's wish.
Me: Thank you sir for your time.
PO: Thank you very much.
These events occurred in respective dates:
I was of ten years then my grandfather taught me the concept of democracy. But I did not know what it was. Slowly, I learned about it. The constitutional was implemented in the country and the Paropakar Orphanage and girls school were also established. Matrika Prasad Koirala became prime minister within this duration. Bhimdatta Panta launched farmer's revolution. After fifteen months, Nepal Law School was established and five years plan was implemented. During this time the Nepal Rastra Bank, the Supreme Court and the Royal Nepal Academy were established. There was general election after some years. His Majesty's government replaced the word Nepal government. After about 21 months, Koshi barrage was constructed. As the time passed by, politics changed. The parliamentary system ended and parties were banned in 2017 B.S. and partyless panchayat system was implemented throughout the country.
Main historical events (from 2007 to 2017)
|7 Falgun 2007||Declaration of democracy.|
|17 Chaitra 2008||Enforcement of Interim constitution|
|12 Asadh 2009||Inauguration of Paropakar Anathalaya|
|26 Shrawan 2009||Inauguration of Sanskrit Prasarini committee and Nar Vidhayapith.|
|2 Asadh 2010||Reinstatement of MP Koirala as PM: revolt against Bhim Data Pant.|
|5 Kartik 2011||Inauguration of Law College.|
|12 Ashwin 2012||Declaration of first five year plan.|
|14 Baishakh 2013||Inauguration of Nepal Rastra Bank.|
|8 Jestha 2013||Establishment of supreme court.|
|9 Asadha 2014||Establishment of Royal Nepal Academy|
|7 Falgun 2014||General Elections for parliament|
|2 Baishakh 2015||His Majesty's Government instead of Nepal government|
|5 Marg 2015||Inauguration of Royal club.|
|17 Baishakh 2016||Lying of foundation stone of Koshi barrage.|
|1 Poush 2017||End of the parliamentary system.|
Both the decades more or less stands for unstable government. In 2007 B.S. an interim government was formed with the premiership of Mohan Shamsher while Krishna Prasad Bhattarai was the prime minister of the interim government of 2046. After Matrika Prasad Koirala and Girija Prasad Koirala became prime minister of Nepal respectively. They were followed by Tanka Prasad Acharya and Dr. K.I. Singh in the early 1910s. Similarly, in the mid and late 1950s, there were communist as well as coalition governments. First general election was held in our country in 2015 B.S. Nepali Congress got the majority. B.P. Koirala became the first ever elected prime minister of Nepal. However, the parliament was dissolved and political parties were banned on 1st poush 2017 B.S. by late King Mahendra. Again, in 2059 B.S. His Majesty the king Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah dissolved the parliament and made Lokendra Bahadur Chand the prime minister and experts of various fields as the ministers. This government did not run for a long and hence another government was formed under the prime ministership of Surya Bahadur Thapa. He too could not make the peace talk successfully and pacify the political parties. So, Sher Bahadur Deuba was appointed the prime minister of Nepal for the third time.
On this very day the historical agreement was made between the Nepal Government and the United Nepal Communist Party which I heartily welcome as a progressive chapter to end up violence and promote the country through peace and harmony.
Tourism can unanimously be one of the best economic resources in the context of Nepal, for Nepal has magnificent and enchanting natural beauties. One may really be spellbind while they are in Nepal. But our country hasn't benefitted from such an important prospective source. As a result our government has once again declared the year 2011 as a tourism year to promote of the country and prosperity is raised. Below are the three activities done by government to make the year successful.
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