Subject: Social Studies
The king promulgated the constitution of the kingdom of Nepal in 2015 BS. King Mahendra took the opportunity on Poush 1, 2017 and made a speech broadcast on the radio announcing his takeover. This note provides an information about the direct rule and ban on political parties and socio-economic achievement during panchayat system.
Failure of the government of B.P Koirala
The government of BP Koirala could only rule for 18 months. The reasons for the failure of the government are:
Blames imposed by the King before dissolving the government
The power was used to fulfill personal interest of the individuals keeping the nation and the people aside.
King Mahendra, who didn't like the multi-party democracy, took the opportunity on Poush 1, 2017 B.S. and made a speech broadcast on the radio announcing his takeover.
"Because of the misuse of the authority, corruption has increased, and there is anarchy in the nation so that national unity is threatened. Random economic decisions have caused instability. In order to protect national unity, create peace and cooperation and to save the whole country we are forced to act according to Article 55 of the constitution and will suspend the cabinet, both houses of parliament and the party system. We will take sole responsibility as laid down in article 55 until a new system is put in place. With good wishes and support from all Nepalese, good governance will prove to be possible."
This announcement hijacked the democracy the Nepali people fought for years through blood, sweat and sacrifice. This day is remembered as Black Day in Nepalese history. The ban on political parties was also put into effect. The king had arrested Prime Minister BP Koirala, the ministers, and other leaders and put them in prison 4 hours prior to the announcement. Curfew was put outside the royal palace every night then onwards. This royal act is called the coup of 2017 BS. On Poush 1, 2017 BS he announced partyless Panchayat system.
Social and Economic Achievements from 2007 B.S. to 2017 B.S.
Question: If you were a member of political party, what programs would you launch against King Mahendra's action?
Dwarika Devi Thakurani was the minister included in the first people's elected government formed in 2016 B.S.
King Mahendra imposed party less panchayat system by suspending some of the articles of contemporary constitution arresting the prime minister, dismissing the parliament and other leaders, jailing many party workers and declaring himself the head of state and the government.
Panchayat system of government that was practiced in our country for 3 decades (1960 to 1990) was a type of itself. No similar system is found elsewhere. Based on the democratic system, it was a rule by the king with the help of some elected officials. His system could not become successful. There was no law and order in the country. There were frequent changes in the government. Political parties began to fight for the power and public welfare was neglected. Looking at this situation, king Mahendra arrested the leaders, suspended the constitution, put a ban on the party system and introduced a party less system in 1960 A.D.
There were village panchayat and town panchayat at lowest level. Then district panchayat in all districts, Zonal panchayat at the zonal level and national panchayat at the national level. All the members of different panchayat were elected and they formed a government. Each and every one belonged to the panchayat. No political parties could be formed. Though democratic principles were put into practice there was control over every aspects of the government machinery. Fundamental rights were given to the citizens but there was no freedom.
People did not enjoy their rights. The feelings of suffocation were there in all the areas. Secretly, there were meetings and political were there but underground. One after another they started counting their hidden place. Ultimately, in 1990 there was a mass revolution. The political parties came out with the party flags. People directly challenged the panchayat leaders. Many people were killed in the revolution. The late king Birendra realized that situation of the country was in favor of multi-party system. So he abolished the panchayat administration and according to the wish of the people multiparty democracy was restored in Nepal in 1990.
The achievement of the king Mahendra are listed below:
On 1st Poush, 2017 B.S. king Mahendra dissolved the then government. He arrested B.P. Koirala and other ministers and imprisoned them. Further, he dissolved the Panchayat system and put ban on the political parties. The existing constitution was paralyzed. It was from this day onward that people had to struggle to restore democracy. Therefore, 1st Poush is regarded as the 'Black Day'.
If I were the member of the political parties, I would react on the prohibition of political parties in the following ways:
Panchayat ruling system was founded by king Mahendra on Poush 1, 2017 BS. It was very undemocratic step of the king because it dismissed the elected government of B.P. Koirala, suppressed people's rights and initiated party less panchayat system.
Because of the following points, Panchayat ruling system was against the people.
|1st Poush, 2017||Magh 19, 2061|
|(a) King Mahendra had banned on the political parties and initiated the Panchayat.||(a) King Gyanendra had only restricted the activities of political parties.|
|(b) The constitution if 2015 BS was entirely suspended.||(b) Only some articles were paralyzed in constitution of 2048 BS.|
|(c) Party less panchayat was begun.||(c) No any such system was introduced.|
|(d) Most of the political leaders were imprisoned.||(d) The major leaders were kept in home imprisonment.|
"Report about the Election of the Constituent Assembly-2070, Nepal"
Background: After the Constituent Assembly of 2064 BS failed to draft a new constituent, the necessity of another such election was felt and 4th Mangsir, 2070 was declared as the election day for the Constituent Assembly As the CA of 2064 could not make decisions on some major issues, like bases federalism and number of provinces, election system, executive authority, etc. It was important to hold 2nd election for the same purpose.
According the people's mandate granted in the people's movement-II, the political parties were to draft a federal republic constituent Assembly was held on Manshir 4, 2070 BS.
To collect information on the process of election applied to hold the CA election of 2070 BS
To observe and find out the details of election activities relating to voters and political parties.
Methodology: To collect the necessary information as per the objectives determined, I used the methods-Primary and Secondary methods of data collection. For collecting, primary data, I followed the activities of political parties, election commission and voters closely before and during election. I had visited about 5 different polling centers.
Similarly, I was in touch with different media for collecting other secondary information.
Finding: By following the methodology mentioned above, I could collect the following details regarding the election of CA of 2070 BS. The findings are:
Mangsir 4, 2070 was the date of election.
The FPTP (First-Past-The-Post) and proportional election methods were adopted.
Election would determine the 575 representative for CA and 26 would be nominated by the government formed after.
122 political parties for the FPTP and 129 for proportional election were completing.
Only thirty political parties represented in the CA.
It was a historic election that about 80% voters cast their votes.
For the first time, the voters identity card was made compulsory for the voters.
Except some, all the polling centers had no any disputes and mischief.
Some polling centers election was held after some days as they were stopped due to some problems.
A large number of election officers, security forces and observers were mobilized.
Conclusion: All the details collected from observing the election meant that it was peacefully conducted and almost all voted for their candidate. Election revives the democracy and grants new ways to be followed. As a voter and an observer for the election, I really had a wonderful time throughout.
If I were asked to support Late King Mahendra's abduction of democracy on Poush 1 2017 BS, I would not have supported him. But I would have definitely requested him that it would be better for the long run of Shah Dynasty if you could be in throne being respected instead of seizing the power of people.
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