United Nations and Its Organs
United Nations Organization
US President Franklin D Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met in the Atlantic Ocean and decided to prevent the world from any type of war and to maintain collective peace and security throughout the world. So, a treaty called ' Atlantic Charter' was signed in the Atlantic Ocean.
4 years after the treaty was signed, on 24th October 1945 , 15 countries formally established UNO which headquarter is in New York, USA.
Objectives of UNO
- To maintain international peace and security.
- To develop friendly relations with nations on the basis of respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of people.
- To cooperate in international, social, cultural, economic, human rights and to promote human and fundamental rights.
- To be the center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attainment of achieving goal
Principles of UNO
- Based on the sovereign equality of all its members.
- All the members should fulfill the charter of the organization.
- They should settle their differences by peaceful means.
- They are obliged to give all their support to the UN
- It cannot intervene in domestic jurisdiction of any nation.
Organs of the UNO
The UNO has 6 organs. They are:
- The Secretariat,
- General Assembly,
- Security Council,
- International Court of Justice,
- Trusteeship Council,
- Economic and Social Council.
Things to remember
- To maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations with nations, to promote human and fundamental rights and to be the centre for harmonizing the actions of nations are the objectives of UNO.
- The UNO has 6 organs. They are The Secretariat, General Assembly, Security Council, International Court of Justice, Trusteeship Council and Economic and Social Council.
- Ban Ki Moon is the Secretary General of South Korea. His tenure is 5 years.
- General Assembly is the biggest UN organ which passes the budget and approves policy and program for UNO.
- Veto power is the special right given to the five permanent members of the security council of UNO who can reject any decision made by General Assembly.
- Economic and Social Council is a non-profitable organ which works for social, economic and humanitarian areas in the world.
- It includes every relationship which established among the people.
- There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
- It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
- common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers
The United Nations Organization was established on 24 October 1945, with 51 nations in New York.
The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the international Judiciary Council and the secretariat are the main organs of the UNO.
UNO stands for United Nations Organization. It was established on 24th October 1945. The headquarter of UNO is in New York, USA. The main objective of its establishment was to maintain international peace and security developing friendly relations among the countries. It also aimed at creating international co-operation and solving various problems of member nations.
In the process of the establishment of the UN, the Atlantic charter has a great importance. While the war was going on, Winston Churchill, the prime minister of Britain, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the president of the USA, met on a warship in the Atlantic Ocean on August 14, 1941. They had discussion on the measures to be taken to restore peace permanently and maintain security in the world. They signed a treaty for establishment of a world organization. This is known as Atlantic charter. It assumed equality among all the nations, international peace, mutual cooperation and non-acquisition of territory of another country.
The final resolution for the establishment of the UNO was signed in San Francisco in a conference held from 25th April to 26th June, 1945. The representatives of 50 nations signed UN charter. The charter became effective from 24th October in the same year.
Due to the failure of League of Nations, an umbrella organization, established on 10th January, 1920, the need of United Nations like organization was felt necessary. By the result, the United Nations was formally established that way.
United Nations Organization is an umbrella organization of all countries in the world. It develops a set of guidelines for all the member countries that they can accept an implement their programmes.
Any new county if wants to get the membership of UNO; the one has to fulfill certain procedures. Some of the terms and conditions are given below.
- The country should be a peace loving country.
- It should have maintained sovereignty and independence.
- Must be able and willing to carry out obligation contained in the chapter.
- Should be recommended and supported by neighboring, too.
Human rights declaration was made public by the general assembly of the United Nations on 10th December, 1948. It was the result of different wars and attacks prior to the date.
The United Nations has contributed for the promotion of human right in Nepal. Some of the roles the UNO played are mentioned below.
- United mission in Nepal (UNMIN) was sent to Nepal for mediating between the Maoist and the government of Nepal which ensured free and fair and conflict less environment.
- Different specialized agencies of UNO, like ILO, UNIEEF etc. are supporting the laborers and children from being violated from the point of view of human right and child right.
- Nepal government has been supported technically and financially in the human right issues so that it can render better environment to live good life of its citizens.
- Different programmes related to human, women and child rights are being supported by different agencies under UN.
After being the member of UN, Nepal has been able to get different benefits. Some of them are mentions below.
- Nepal has got support of UN for concluding its peace process that ended a ten year long internal conflicts.
- Various specialized agencies under the UN are supporting Nepal technically and finally for poverty alleviation, agriculture improvements, afforestation, environmental preservation etc.
- As a member of the UN, Nepal sends its security personals in peace keeping missions to different conflicts countries from where they earn and learn.
- Nepal has been the member of Security Council twice in the past, which has given international exposure to it and a platform to keep its issues forward for mutual discussion.
The overall activities which are carried out for economic development are called economic plan. It includes studies plan, programmes, strategies etc. utilizing available means and resources to fulfill the specific objectives in specific time period are economic plan.
There are various problems related to economic development in Nepal:
- Lack of enough infrastructural development, because of which implementing economic plans has limited sectors or areas.
- Overlapping the plans and in completion of the existing programmes.
- Political instability and disagreement among the political parties.
- Unstable government and frequently changing policies.
To solve the problems related to economic plans, the following measures can be suitable:
- There should be proper infrastructural development, so that it becomes easy to carry out new plans for economic development, and infrastructural development itself.
- There should be proper implementation of the existing plans without overlapping new with the old.
- Political commitment, for economic development and implementation and proper political agreement.
- Stable government with enough supporting factors etc.
If I were the representative of the member country of the security council of UN, I would do the following activities to solve the present Syrian conflicts.
- Raise voice against the inhuman activities taking place in Syria.
- Creating positive pressure to hold peaceful dialogue between the conflicting groups.
- Collecting international support for peaceful settlement of the conflicts.
- Suggesting and voting in favor of developing the peace keeping force in conflicting areas of Syria.
Availability of natural resources such as river system, land structure, ecological regions can be taken as the bases in naming the provinces of federal state.
The three advantages of federal state are:
- There is representation of different population. Local needs, tastes and opinions are given due consideration by the state government.
- The state government has freedom to adopt suitable policies which may not to be followed nationally.
- The administrative system will be efficient and transparent and decision making and implementation will be prompt etc.
Any four reasons to establish UNO are:
- To maintain peace and understanding throughout the world.
- To prevent the wars in future as first and second world wars brought heavy destruction of life and property.
- To bring social and economical reforms in the world by assisting the poor countries.
- As League of Nations failed in the mission to establish peace and harmony in the world.
To make the functions of UN agencies more active and effective in the social and economic sector on Nepal, the following measures should be taken:
- Government should make clear and easy plans and policies for such global organization.
- People participation should be increased to coordinate and work with them.
- No any hindrances, strikes and bandas should affect the projects that such agencies are carrying out.
- The budget that they allocate for the development work should be utilized properly for the right purpose.
UNO was established on 24th October, 1945 AD. Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of Britain and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the President of USA are the two important persons who played a vital role in establishment of UNO. They discussed about the measures to be taken to restore peace and security in the world after the meeting on a battleship in the Atlantic Ocean in August 1941. They jointly issued a declaration charter known as the Atlantic Charter. Finally, UNO was established and the credit goes to them.
We can ask the following model questions to the general secretary of UN regarding the current affairs.
- Would you please say what policies the UN is making to keep all countries under its norms and values?
- How can the world be kept safe from atomic explosion?
- How can we minimize global warming?
- What strategies should be applied to control the population of developing countries and bring development in those countries?
UNO, the only such world trusted humanitarian organization, has multi-dimensional functions. It has got 6 organs. Among them the Security Councilis establishment of the UNO, this organs work very importantly.
The structure of UNO is of two bases. On the one hand there are 5 permanent members like USA, Russia, China, Britain and France. They have got special veto power to use in special conditions. On the other hand 10 countries are temporarily elected from the UN member countries in the tenure of 2 years.
The main functions of UN are to maintain peace and security.
- In parts of the world which has been in sensitive condition because of civil war, revolt and violence causing terror the UN peace keeping task force is recommended to do their jobs.
- It has power to prepare the names according to which the general assembly appoints secretary general of UN.
- It gives pressure through counseling in resolving disputes and establish peace through dialogues, negotiation etc.
- It can recommend to the general assembly in the subjects of taking new member countries of the suspension from the UN membership.
UNO has widened its limitation by working on various humanitarian sectors. Because of war of political instabilities and civil war, or because of natural disaster there is a condition of taking refugees in some other's land. This condition is almost prevailed in various parts of the world. It is humane and economically or socially or mentally a great affect. UNHCR is an important humanitarian agency under UNO. If was established in 1951 AD to help the refugees seem after the World War II. It provides food, accommodation, medicine and educational faculties in coordination with other agencies. It also tries to make environment of sending back or reestablish the refugee back to their respective country. In Nepal also there we have Bhutanese refugees in 7 camps. It contributes to solve the problem in Nepal are:
- It has continuously been helping with the foods, clothes, medicine, and accommodation to solve the problem.
- It is trying to host meetings between the respective countries and make environment to solve the problem.
- It has played its role in giving pressure to resettle the refugees and persuade the interested countries to bear them in their own countries.
UNO has played a very significant role in the management of world peace. The Security Council decides to deploy the peace keeping force in the countries where there is civil war, violence. Nepalese arms have been preferably deployed in such areas. Since the inception Nepal force has been mobilized various fronts of the world such as Liberia, Kenya, Somalia, etc. To make the functions of peace keeping force more effective following things have to be done:
- More training on gorilla war, use of modern and advanced weapons, psychological dealing should be offered to those who represent the battalion.
- The APC (Armed Personal Cosigns) that has to be taken by sensibly has to be managed without corruption which ensures ones' security.
- They have to be more disciplined, hones and dutiful to the command for their disservice of long term respect and opportunities.
- It would be helpful if they are given the language knowledge of English or the local language where ever they are supposed to be deployed. Language knowledge of the local area helps more in familiarization of the place and people.
After Nepal became the member of UNO in 1955 AD, since then Nepal has been receiving incessant support in various sectors through various agencies of UNO. They have been working to promote the social, economic, educational sector. Below is given the list of agencies of UNO and their functions:
- UNICEF: it has been working to promote the condition of children who are in vulnerable condition. The homeless, helpless children have been cared with child care centers and community development.
- UNFPA: the United Nations Fund for Population Activities is an agency under UNO. It has been helping the Nepalese women in the awareness raising and being capable enough to support the family development.
- WFP: it is also an UN agency. It is a World Food Programme. This agency works for the supplies of food in the area where people are affected by any usual situation like flood, landslide, earthquake etc. In the coordination with UNHCR it helps to provide food to the Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal.
- UNHCR: it would help in problems raising employment opportunities. Plays a diplomatic role in the solution of border encroachment problem that Nepal is facing in the east, west and south of Nepal.
Right to use veto power is in the hands of the five permanent member countries of the Security Council. As the result these countries have become most powerful. This is not right. At the same time of establishment of the UNO, probably it was an appropriate step taken by the founding nations, but, now in 21st century, there are many other countries which have emerged as the new power. They also contribute to run activities of the UNO. Either there should not be any provision of such permanent membership or, it should be broadly revised including other countries on the basis of their areas, population, economic status etc. The UN Security Council should be impartial and responsible to maintain peace and security in the world.
There are six organs of UN which as explained as follows: -
- General Assembly: It is the parliament of the UN. It is represented by all the member states. Every member states can send 5 representative but it can cast only one vote. Its main functions are to pass the budget of the UN, discuss international issues, amend the Charter if required and elect the members to the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council.
- Security Council: It is the executive of the UN. It has 5 permanent and 10 temporary members elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years. Its main functions are to maintain world peace, recommend for the membership of new nations and make recommendations for the appointment of Secretary General and judges.
- The Economic and Social Council: It attempts to create in the world stability, prosperity and justice. It has 54 member states elected by the General Assembly for a 3-year term. It works as per the direction of the General Assembly. It deals with the problems related to society, education, health, culture and economy.
- Trusteeship Council: According to the Charter, this organ works for the development and cooperation for the nations which were created after World War II or for the nations which could not work independently. It has 7 administrative and 7 non-administrative members. It consists of 5 permanent nations, administrative nations of trust areas and other nations elected for three years.
- International Court of Justice: It is the chief judicial organ of the UN. It has 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of 9 years. The judges can be re-elected. Five judges vacate their posts every 3 years. It settles the disputes among the nations. Its headquarters is situated in the Hague, Holland.
- Secretariat: There is a secretariat which runs the day-to-day administration of the UN. it has a Secretary General elected by the General Assembly under the recommendation of the Security Council for a term of 5 years. It conducts various activities to maintain peace, organizes international conferences for important worldwide issues, and publishes reports regarding human rights, situation, disarmament etc.