Natural Disasters: Earthquake and Tsunami

Subject: Social Studies

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Overview

The shaking or jerking motion of the earth surface vertically or horizontally is called an earthquake. This note has information about the causes of earthquake, earthquake-prone zones, the effects of the earthquake and different terms related to the earthquake.

Natural Disasters: Earthquake and Tsunami

Earthquake

http://i.imgur.com/cx6Hfjo.jpg

The shaking or jerking motion of the earth surface vertically or horizontally is called an earthquake. The Hypocenter is the point inside the earth where the earthquake originates. The Epicenter is the point on the earth surface that is vertically above the hypocenter.

http://i.imgur.com/RoB4QJz.jpg

The seismic waves are the ways or the vibration traveled in a different direction from the epicenter. A seismograph is an instrument that measures the intensity, origin and speed of the earthquake. The intensity of an earthquake is measured in Richter scale.

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Causes of earthquake:

  1. The adjustment of the continental plates inside the earth by colliding causes tremor at the hypocenter.
  2. A volcanic eruption.
  3. Large deposition of soil by the rivers causes huge pressure on the earth.
  4. Underground bombs testing.

          http://i.imgur.com/a5atmOF.jpg

Effects of earthquake:

  1. Destruction of the building, roads, electricity supply, etc.
  2. Affects on human and animal lives.
  3. Causes landslides and mudslides.
  4. Cracking the earth’s crust.
  5. Formation of the lake, small hills etc.

 

 

Tsunami

A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, usually a sea or ocean. Tsunamis are often barely visible when they are in the deep sea. This makes tsunami detection in the deep sea very difficult. A tsunami can travel at well over 970 kph (600 mph) in the open ocean. A tsunami may be less than a foot (30 centimeters) in height on the surface of the open ocean. But the powerful shockwave of energy travels rapidly through the ocean as fast as a commercial jet. Once a tsunami reaches shallow water near the coast, it is slowed down. The top of the wave moves faster than the bottom, causing the sea to rise dramatically.

Causes of Tsunami:

  1. Earthquake
  2. Volcanic Eruption
  3. Underwater Explosions
  4. Meteorite Impacts

Effects of Tsunami:

  1. Flooding
  2. Devastating of property.
  3. Loss of lives
  4. Basic infrastructures destruction.

 

 

Things to remember
  • The shaking or jerking motion of the earth’s surface vertically or horizontally is called an earthquake.
  • The instrument that measures the intensity, origin and speed of the quake is called seismograph.
  • Causes of an earthquake are a volcanic eruption, underground bomb testing, large deposition of soil, etc.
  • The point inside the earth where the earthquake originates is hypocenter.
  • The point on the earth surface that is vertically above the hypocenter is called epicenter.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

Earthquake is mainly caused due to the movement of continental places that are enormous and manually immobile, which does not depend on the tasks carried out by human beings. So, it can't be stopped, rather we can prevent us from the disasters following proper ways for construction.

Earthquake refers to shaking and vibrating movement of the earth surface. It moves up and down or sideways.

Hypocenter is the inner place of the earth where the earthquake originates.

Epicenter is the place on the surface of the earth where the vibration of the earthquake comes first from the hypocenter.

One place where earthquake is most frequent is the surrounding places of the Pacific Ocean.

One measure to be safe from earthquake is that we should come out of house during earthquake.

One effect of earthquake is that it destroys properties.

Seismograph is an instrument used to measure the intensity of an earthquake.

The two major earthquake prone zone of the world are:
  1. The Asia Pacific Ocean
  2. The Rocky Mountain Range

The earthquake's vibrations recording instrument is called seismograph.

  1. Hypocenter is the inner place of the earth where earthquake originates at first. Epicenter is the place on the surface of the earth where the first vibration of the earthquake arrives from the hypocenter.
  2. Earthquake is the shaking movement of the earth surface. It occur at the joining parts of the continental plates when they move floating in the very hot liquid or semi liquid materials. Volcano is the spewing of the earth. It occurs where there is crack on the surface of the earth or the weak place which cannot bear the pressure of hot liquid of the inner part of the earth.

Earthquake is the shaking movement of the earth surface. There are many causes of its occurrence. The tectonic movement is an important cause of it. As we know, the earth's crust is divided into several parts due to deep cracks or faults which are known as continental plates. Some of them keep moving apart and some may move into each other. In this process, a big fault may occur which result in occurrence of earthquake. Eruption of volcano also causes the earthquake. When volcano occurs, lava comes out with great force causing earthquake.
The earthquake has both good and bad effect they are:

  1. It leads to loss of life and property.
  2. Infrastructure such as roads, bridges, hospitals etc. get destroyed.
  3. It causes landslide, tsunami, etc. which result in further complication.
  4. There will be formation of mountains, seas etc.
Earthquake is a natural process of shaking movement of the earth surface but sometimes it becomes very dangerous and disastrous and takes the lives of thousands of people and property of enormous amount. The effects of earthquake are:
  1. The buildings and houses fall down due to earthquake.
  2. Infrastructures like roads, bridge, industries, dams etc. are destroyed.
  3. Diseases and famine may spread.
  4. Earthquake causes landslide tsunami and storms. They cause a lot of damage.
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