Fern Morphology

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Overview

Fern belongs to the division Pteridophyta because they have the feathery leaf. This note gives the detailed explanation of morphology of ferns.

Fern Morphology

Systematic position

Kingdom : Plant

Sub-kingdom : Cryptogams

Division : Pteridophyta

Type : fern (Drgopteris)

Habit and Habitat

Ferns grow in cool, shady and moist places. They are cosmopolitan (universal) in distribution.

Morphology (out-look)

  • Fern consists of feathery leaves.
  • The plant body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. The roots and stem are underground and only the leaves are aerial.
  • Fern plant is classified under Pteridophyta division because they contain feathery leaves.
  • Roots are generally called rhizoid. They absorb water and mineral from thesoil.
  • The stem is underground. It is covered by brown-hairy structures. These structures are called raiment (young leafs).
  • The leaves are called fronds. Each leaf contains thelarge number of dark-brown structures under the surface. These are called sori (singular: sorus).

Fern plant in diagram:-

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The leaves which contain sori are called sporophyll and the leaves which do not contain sori are called tropophyll.

Things to remember
  • Fern belongs to the division Pteridophyta because they have the feathery leaf.
  • Ferns grow in cool places where shade is predominant.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Questions and Answers
During the gametophytic generation, antheridia produce antherozoids. The archegonia produce ova. Archegonia release mallic acid that attracts antherozoids. This movement of antherozoids due to the release of chemical mallic acid by archegonia is called chemo taxis.
Classification of fern plant:
Kingdom : Plant
Sub-kingdom: Cryptogams
Division : Pteridophyta
The leaves of fern plant bear feathers. So, it is kept under pteridophyta. The word 'Pterido' means feather and 'Phyta' means plant. The leaf of fern plant looks like feathers.
Nowadays fern is classified at Tracheophyta due to the presence of well-developed vascular bundle i.e. Xylem and phloem. It means, the transportation of water and minerals absorbed by the root is done by xylem and the food prepared by the leaves is carried away by the well-developed phloem. Besides they have well-developed roots, stem and leaves.
In the life cycle of the fern plant, the plant itself is the sporophyte, which produces spores. On the other hand, the prothallus is the gametophyte, which bears the male and female gametes, antheridia and archegonia respectively.
In fern, sporangium is found at the back of the leaf.
The spores are found on the backside of the leaf of fern plant.
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