The type of reproduction in which fusion of male and female gamete is not needed but takes place from same vegetative part of the body is called asexual reproduction.
Types of asexual reproduction:
- Fission: The type of reproduction in which one individual divide itself into two or more daughter individual by some mechanism is called fission. It is of two types:
- Binary fission: The asexual reproduction in which one organism divides into two daughter organisms is called binary fission. This type of reproduction generally occurs in Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium etc.
- Multiple fission: The asexual reproduction in which one organism divides into many daughter organisms is called multiple fission. This type of reproduction generally occurs in Plasmodium (malaria parasite) and Chlamydomonas.
- Budding: During budding, a small end produced on the body of organism grows fully and is detached from the main body part after maturity and starts living on its own, is called budding.
Fragmentation and regeneration
- Fragmentation: When a long plant body divides into various fragments because of different effects, they start to spread independent life. This is called fragmentation. E.g. Spirogyra
- Regeneration: When an organism is divided into two, each part can regenerate into a new individual this process is called regeneration. It is very common in animalslikehydra, tapeworm,Planeria etc.
- Sporulation: Most of the non-flowering plants like mucor, mushroom, bacteria produce spores inside their sporangia. The spores are small, light unicellular reproductive structures formed by meiosis. The spores are released out by bursting. Such spores germinate under favorable conditions.
- Vegetative propagation: The reproduction, which generally occurs only in plants from various vegetative organs like root, stem, leaves etc. through the process of cutting, grafting, layering etc., is called vegetative propagation. E.g. through root: sweet potato, mint etc., through leaves:poryophylumbegania etc., through stem: sugarcane, ginger etc. (See more on Test yourself)
Advantages of vegetative propagation
- The plants, which do not produce viable seeds, can be easily propagated by this method. For example, banana, rose, sugarcane potato etc.
- The plants produced by vegetative propagation bear flowers and fruit earlier than those produced from seed do. E.g. orange, lemon, mango etc.
- It is a cheap and rapid method relative to a long period of seed dormancy.
- It gives rise to genetically uniform population, the clone.
Advantages of asexual reproduction
- It does not need any particular environment as a single individual involves in it. Thus, it is a rapid and cheap method of reproduction.
- It helps to produce groups of quality organisms.
- Offspring produced by this method get ready for further reproduction fast.
Things to remember
- The type of reproduction in which fusion of male and female gamete is not needed but takes place from same vegetative part of the body is called asexual reproduction.
- Asexual reproduction is divided into fission, budding and fragmentation and regeneration.
- Fission is further divided into binary and multiple fission.
- It includes every relationship which established among the people.
- There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
- It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
- common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction: Fission: Binary & multiple
Budding In Yeast and Hydra
Vegetative Reproduction - Artificial Propagation
What is Sporulation ?
Questions and Answers
1. Fusion of male and female gametes doesn't take place.
2. Identical offspring develop from a single organism.
1. Fusion of male and female gametes takes place.
2. Variable offspring develop from two parents.
1. These organisms have male and female sex organs in different organisms.
2. The two examples are human and ascaris.
1. These organisms have male and female sex organs in the same organisms.
2. The two examples are earthworm and Hydra.
The different modes of asexual reproduction and one example of organism that reproduces by each mode are as follows: i. Fission: Chlamydomonas ii. Budding: Yeast iii. Sporulation: Mucor iv. Vegetative propagation: Bryophyllum v. Fragmentation: Spirogyra
i. Tapeworm : Fragmentation ii. Plasmodium: Fission iii. Yeast: Budding
Binary fission is the mode of asexual reproduction, where a unicellular organism divides into two similar types of daughter cells. In this process, first nucleus divides into two and this is followed by cytoplasmic division such that each daughter cell gets half the nucleus. Diatoms, Chlamydomonas reproduce in this mode.
The production of offspring from a single parent by using the vegetative parts like root, leaf, stem, etc. instead of gametes is called vegetative propagation. The three different types of artificial methods of vegetative propagation are: Layering, cutting and grafting.
The reproduction which takes place without the fusion of male and female gametes and involve only one parent organism is called asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction takes place through mitotic cell division where an organism produces identical cells compared to the cells of the parent organism. Sexual reproduction takes place through gametes that are formed through meiotic cell divisions. These gametes are different due to crossing over and the fact that they come from two different parents. So, the offspring are different from each other as well as from the parents.
The significances of asexual reproduction are: a. Many offspring can be grown from a single parent within a short period of time. So, it is an economic and quick process. b. Reproduction of those plants that do not produce good seeds is possibly by asexual reproduction. c. This mode helps in producing many identical organisms. So, it is used for maintaining uniformity and parental characteristics.
The different types of asexual reproduction in animals with one example are: a. Fission : Amoeba b. Budding : Hydra c. Regeneration : Tapeworm
Vegetative propagation is important to the farmers because of the following reasons:
- It is economic and quick process as many offspring can be grown from a single parent within a short period.
- This process is possible for even those plants that do not produce good seeds.
The production of new plants by using the vegetative parts of plants like root, stem or leaf is called vegetative propagation. The two examples of vegetative propagation are Grafting and cutting.
An organism like amoeba forms a hard covering called cyst around it and its nucleus divides many times. Each nucleus is surrounded by a small amount of cytoplasm. When the cyst breaks, the nuclei are released out. This mode of asexual reproduction is called multiple fission and is performed during adverse environmental conditions.
Sugarcane is planted by cutting its stem. This is asexual reproduction. This process is used in sugarcane because it does not produce seeds that can be used for reproduction.