## Iron

Subject: Science

#### Overview

Iron is a transitional element and is a ‘D’ block element. It belongs to Group VIII of the periodic table. This note is about the metal iron.
##### Iron

Symbol: Fe
Atomic number: 26
Atomic weight: 55.84(56)
Valency: 2 and 3
Electronic configuration:1s2,2s2, 2p6,3s2, 3p6,4s2, 3d6

### Position in periodic table:

Iron is a transitional element and known as "d" block element. It belongs to Group VIII of the periodic table. It is the first transition series in the fourth period. On the left side of it, manganese is located whereas on the right-hand side, cobalt is found.

1. Hematite
2. Magnetite
3. Siderite
4. Limonite
5. Iron pyrite

### Physical Properties of Iron

1. Pure iron is a silvery white metal and lustrous metal.
2. Its specific gravity is 7.86.
3. Iron melts at 1550ºC and boils at 2400ºC.
4. Iron is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
5. It is malleable and ductile in nature.

### Chemical Properties

1. Rusting: Iron gets rusted in the presence of moist air. The compression of iron into a mixture of Fe2O3 and H2Oby atmospheric oxygen and moisture is called rusting. The rust is usually hydrated iron III oxide(Fe2O3.XH2O)
2. $$4Fe + 3O_2 + XH_2O\longrightarrow2Fe_2O_3 .XH_2O$$
3. Reaction with acids:
• Iron reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrogen gas is liberated. $$Fe + dil. 2HCl \longrightarrow FeCl_2 +H_2$$
• Iron reacts with dilute sulphuric acid and hydrogen gas is produced along with ferrous sulphate. $$Fe + dil.H_2SO_4\longrightarrow FeSO_4 +H_2$$
• When iron reacts with theconcentrated sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide is produced. $$2Fe + conc. 6H_2SO_4 \longrightarrow Fe_2(SO_4)_3 + 6H_2O + 3SO_2$$
• Iron reacts with both dilute and concentrated nitric acid and replaces hydrogen from nitric acid. $$4Fe + dil. 10HNO_3 \longrightarrow 4Fe(NO_3)_2 +NH_4NO_3 +3H_2O$$ $$Fe + conc. 6HNO_3 \longrightarrow 4Fe(NO_3)_3 +3NO_2 +3H_2O$$

### Uses of iron

1. It is used in the manufacture of steel.
2. It is used in making household utensils.
3. It is used as thecatalyst in different chemical reactions.
4. It is used in making rods, pipes,chains, vehicles, railway tracks,etc.

##### Things to remember
• Iron is a transitional element and known as ‘d’ block element. It belongs to Group VIII of the periodic table. It is the first transition series in the fourth period. On the left side of it, manganese is located whereas on the right-hand side, cobalt is found.
• The important ores of iron are hematite, magnetite, siderite, limonite, etc.
• The properties of iron are: good conductor of heat and electricity, malleable and ductile in nature, boils at 24500ºC and melts at 15350ºC.
• Iron is used to manufacture steel, make household utensils, make rods, pipes,chains, vehicles, railway tracks,etc.
• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
##### Separation: Iron from Salt & Sand Mixture
The names of two minerals (ores) of iron are haematite and magnetite. Iron is called metal because it is malleable and ductile and has high density and hard.
Rusting occurs when iron is exposed to moist air. The following chemical reaction takes place to rust on iron. 4Fe + 3O2 + X.H2O → 2Fe2O3.XH2O

When iron is dipped in copper sulphate solution, it displaces copper from its salt.

Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu

Iron metal can be extracted from the ore of haematite and aluminum metal can be extracted from bauxite ore.

The balanced chemical equation for the reaction between iron and dilute sulphuric acid is: Fe + H2SO4 (dil.) → FeSO4 + H2

Iron (the metal) is used in the construction of buildings, automobiles, etc.
Iron is not found in pure form in nature because iron is very reactive metal which can react with the different substance found in nature to form compounds.

The properties of iron are:

i. It is good conductor of heat.
ii. Its melting point (1500°C) is very high.
iii. It is malleable and ductile in nature.
An iron displaces the less active metal from its salt solution; the iron gets coated with copper.
When iron reacts with dilute sulphuric acid Fe + dil. H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2
When iron reacts with hot/conc. Sulphuric acid
Fe + dil. H2SO4 → Fe (SO4)3 + 3SO4 ↑ + 6H2O
(hot/conc.)
When iron reacts with dil. /conc. Hydrochloric acid
Fe + 2HCl → FeCl2 + H2
(dil. /conc.)
When iron reacts with dilute and conc. Nitric acid.
4Fe + 10HNO3 → 4Fe (NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O
Fe + 6HNO3 → Fe (NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O