Atomic No: 79
Atomic Weight: 197.2
Valency: 1 and 3
Electronic configuration: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,3d10,4s2,4p6,4d10,4f14,5s2,5p6,5d10,6s1
Position in the periodic table: Gold is a soft, lustrous yellow metal. It is a 'd' block transition element in the periodic table. It belongs to period 6 and group IB.
Gold is a noble metal and has no action with water, air, alkalis and acids. But it dissolves in aqua regia (3:1 ratio of conc. HCl and conc. HNO3) to give gold chloride, nitrosyl chloride and water.
2Au + 3HNO3 + 9HCl → 3NOCl + 6H2O + 2AuCl3
Aqua-regia is the mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrochloric acid in 1:3 ratio. The chlorine found in aqua-regia can dissolve gold.
When gold is heated with chlorine, it gives gold chlorine. 2Au + 3Cl2 → 2AuCl3
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