Soap and Detergent

Subject: Science

Find Your Query

Overview

Soap is prepared by boiling animal fats or vegetables oil with sodium hydroxide . The fats or oils react with alkali or sodium hydroxide to form soap and glycerol.Glycerol is the trihydric alcohol. This note contains brief introduction on soap and detergent along with their formation and uses.
Soap and Detergent

Soap is the sodium salt of long chain fatty acids that has cleansing property in water.

Saponification:

The process by which soap is prepared by the reaction of animal or plant fat with sodium hydroxide solution is saponification.

Process of formation of soap

Soap is prepared by boiling animal fats or vegetables oil with sodium hydroxide . The fats or oils react with alkali or sodium hydroxide to form soap and glycerol.Glycerol is the trihydric alcohol.

Fat or Oil + Sodium hydroxide→ Soap + Glycerol

Detergents:

Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid or long chain alkyl benzene sulphate which has more cleansing property in water.

Nepal's Largest Virtual Event Abroad Studies Opportunities

Advantages of detergents over soap:

  1. They can be used even in hard water.
  2. They give stronger cleansing property than soap.
  3. They are more soluble in water than soap.

Advantages of soap over detergents:

  1. Soap is biodegradable.
  2. They do not pollute water bodies like ponds, lakes, etc.

Differences between soap and detergent

Soap Detergent
They are sodium salts of higher fatty acids. They are sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid.
They have relatively weaker cleansing action They have relatively strong cleansing action
It is biodegradable It is non biodegradable
It is not suitable for washing in hard water.For example: Sodium sterate It is suitable for washing in hard water. For example: Sodium lauryl sulphate
Things to remember
  • Soap is the sodium salt of long chain fatty acids that has cleansing property in water.
  • Soap is prepared by boiling animal fats or vegetables oil with sodium hydroxide . The fats or oils react with alkali or sodium hydroxide to form soap and glycerol.Glycerol is the trihydric alcohol.
  • Fat or Oil + Sodium hydroxide → Soap + Glycerol
  • It is not suitable for washing in hard water. For example: Sodium sterate.
  • Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphonic acid or long chain alkyl benzene sulphate which has more cleansing property in water.
  • Detergents are suitable for washing in hard water. For example: Sodium lauryl sulphate
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Soap and Detergent
5.2 EN: Structure of Soap and Detergent Molecules
5.3 EN: The Cleansing Action of Soap and Detergent
Chemistry Carbon & Compounds part 27 (Soap) CBSE class 10 X
Cleansing Action Of Soap
Questions and Answers
Soap is the sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids e.g. sodium stearate. When some fats or oil is heated with sodium solution, it splits into the sodium salt of the higher fatty acid (i.e. soap) and glycerol. Fat or oil + NaOH (or KOH) → Soap + Glycerol

The industrial chemical formed by fatty acid and caustic soda is soap.

Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain of benzene sulphonic acid or alkyl benzene sulphonate. Sodium lauryl sulphate is the example of detergents.
Detergent is better than soap to wash clothes because it has strong cleansing action than soap since it is more soluble in water than soap and does not form scum with hard water.
Soap Detergents
  1. Soaps are prepared from animal fats or vegetable oil.
  2. Soaps are biodegradable.
  1. Detergents are prepared from hydrocarbon extracted from petroleum.
  2. Detergents are mostly non- biodegradable.
Quiz

© 2019-20 Kullabs. All Rights Reserved.