Glass

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Overview

An amorphous, transparent and super cooled liquid is called glass.The water glass is the glass obtained by heating the mixture of sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate with silica at 800 degree celsius. This note provides us an information about Glass.
Glass

The glass is an amorphous, transparent and supercooled liquid which is prepared from the homogenous mixture of silicates of different metals.

Types of glass

  1. Quartz glass(Silica glass) : The glass which is prepared by heating pure silica at 1600 degree Celsius is called silica glass.It is a pure crystalline glass.

  2. Water glass: The glass which is obtained by heating the mixture of sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate with silica at 800-degree celsius is called water glass. It is called water glass because it is easily soluble in water.
  3. Ordinary glass (Soda glass/Soft glass) : The glass which is obtained after heating the mixture of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and silica athigh temperature about 1500 degree celsius is called ordinary glass.It is prepared by heating the mixture of 50% silica, 25% piece of glass, 15% sodiumcarbonate and 10% calcium carbonate.It is called soft glass because it melts at low temperature.

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  4. Hard glass (Potash lime glass) : The glass which is prepared after the heating of potassium carbonate, calcium carbonate and silica at high temperature is called hard glass.
  5. Borosilicate (Pyrex) Glass: The glass which is manufacturedafter heating the mixture of sodium carbonate, boronoxide and silica at high temperature is called hard glass.

  6. Lead crystal glass: The glass which is obtained after heating the mixture of potassium carbonate, lead monoxide and silica at high temperature is called lead crystal glass.

  7. Colored glass: The glass of multiple colors which are prepared by mixing the raw materials of ordinary glass with different metallic oxides is called colored glass.

    S.No Metallic oxides Colour
    1. Cobalt oxide Blue
    2. Nickel oxide Black
    3. Copper oxide/Selenium oxide Red
    4 Chromium oxide Green
    5 Iron oxide Yellow/Brown
    6 manganese oxide Purple
    7 Tin oxide Milky White

Things to remember
  • An amorphous, transparent and super cooled liquid is called glass.
  • The water glass is the glass obtained by heating the mixture of sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate with silica at 800 degree celsius.
  • The ordinary glass is the soft glass obtained after heating the mixture of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and silica at high temperature about 1500 degree celsius.
  • The glass prepared after the heating of potassium carbonate, calcium carbonate and silica at high temperature is hard glass or potash lime glass.
  • The glass which is manufactured after heating the mixture of sodium carbonate, boron oxide and silica at high temperature is called borosilicate (Pyrex) Glass.
  • Lead crystal glass is the glass which is obtained after heating the mixture of potassium carbonate, lead monoxide and silica at high temperature.
  • Multiple colored glass prepared by mixing the raw materials of ordinary glass with different metallic oxides is called colored glass. examples: Cobalt oxide,Iron oxide etc.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers
Raw materials used in the preparation of ordinary glass are- 50% silica, 15% sodium carbonate, 10% calcium carbonate and 25% piece of glass.
The industrial chemical formed by silica, lead oxide and potassium carbonate is lead crystal glass.
When the mixture of silica and sodium carbonate is heated, water glass is formed. Water glass is soluble in water and it is used to make fire proof materials.
The common name for borosilicate glass is Pyrex glass. Borosilicate glass is used to make laboratory equipments because a. It is resistant to chemicals. b. It can withstand high temperature.

The following are the properties by which glass is more useful:
i. Glass is attractive and transparent.
ii. It is insoluble in water.
iii. It is not affected by chemicals.
iv. It can be made colorful by mixing different colors.
v. It disperses and refracts the light.

The glass which is made by heating of the mixture of potassium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and silica is called hard glass. It is used for making different types of laboratory equipment like beaker, hard glass-test-tubes, etc. and electric bulbs and tube lights. The glass which is prepared by heating the mixture of sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate and silica is called soft glass. It is used for making bottles, windows pans, ordinary glass tubes, glass sheets, etc.
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