Fibers are hair-like strands which are extremely long in comparison to their width. They are strong, flexible and spun into yarn and used for fabrics.
Broadly, fibers are divided into two types. They are
The fibers which are obtained from naturally occurring sources are called natural fibers. They include cotton, wool, silk, etc. They are obtained mainly from plants and animals. They account for more than half of fibers produced in the world each year.
The fibers that are made by artificial methods are called artificial fibers. They are also called manufactured fibers. They are of two types. They are regenerated and synthetic fibers.
Example: Regenerated fibers: rayon Synthetic fibers: nylon
Monomer: The simple organic molecules which are used to make polymer is called monomer.
Polymer: The complex organic molecules which are made by repeating the same or different types of many simple organic molecules are called polymer.
Polymerization: The process in which two or more simple molecules are joined together to form a polymer is called polymerization.
Thread like substances possessing strength and elastic property is called fibre. A fibre is a natural or artificial thread which bears higher tensile strength and is very strong. This is used in making clothes, ropes, nets etc.
These are prepared by chemical process. These are thick, warm and durable. Nylon, polyester etc are synthetic fibres. Synthetic fibres are mostly used in making sweaters, carpets, vests etc.
Recycled fibres are replacement of natural fibres. They are quite similar to the natural fibres, e.g. rayon is obtained from cellulose and pulp within the wood. They have properties similar to that of cotton.
The differences between natural and artificial fibres are as follows:
|Natural fibres||Artificial fibres|
|Fibres, which are naturally found, are called naturally fibres.||The manmade fibres are called artificial fibres.|
|Cotton and wool are natural fibres of own kind.||Artificial fibres are of two types:|
A fibre is a natural or artificial thread which bears higher tensile strength and is very strong. e.g. ropes, nets, etc.
The two fibres:
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