The brain is the processing center of a human body. It is protected inside cranium (also called brain box) in the skull. There are three layers of membranes (connective tissue) that cover the brain called meninges. The three meninges are dura mater (touches brain), arachnoid mater and pia mater (touches skull) from outside to inside. There is a space between pia mater and arachnoid mater is called subarachnoid space which is filled with Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Every part of the brain is covered by these meninges. The function of these meninges is to reduce friction with the brain and keep brain moist. It can also act as shock absorber, so can help to protect brain. The inflammation of meninges is called meningitis. Brain has many smaller furrows (convolutions) associated with it because it helps to increase the surface area. Grey matter, which has a pinkish-grey color in the living brain, contains the cell bodies, dendrites and axon terminals of neurons, so it is where all synapses are. White matter is made of axons connecting different parts of grey matter to each other. Brain has grey matter outside and grey matter inside. Average surface area of the human brain is 2500 cm square.
TheBrain is divided into three parts.
It is the longest part of the brain which lies anterior in the brain box. It is the 2/3 of the whole brain and divided into left and right hemispheres. The demarcation of hemispheres is done by a deep cleavage called fissure. Major function of cerebrum are as follows.
It is the middle part of the brain which is responsible for maintaining body posture. Its major functions are as follows.
It is the posterior part of the brain which controls overall activities of the body. It is also a part of the brain called brain stem (includes Pons and Mid brain). The main functions of medulla oblongata are as follows.
Cerebellum maintains equilibrium of the muscular movement of his fingers which makes movement smooth, steady and co-ordinated.
The space between the arachnoid mater and piameter is filled with a fluid which is called cerebrospinal fluid.
Brain is the highest co-ordinating center of the body. The brain is enclosed in a bony case, the cranium or brain box. Three protective layers covering called meninges filled with extra cellular fluid act against shock and mechanical injury.
The three layers of meninges are:
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