Heat is a form of energy that gives sensation of warmth. The SI unit of heat is joule.
In C.G.S system, the unit of heat is calorie.
1 calorie = 4.2 Joule
Heat always flow from hotter body to colder body.
It is defined as the degree of hotness and coldness of the body. Its S.I. unit is Kelvin. The body that is hot has more temperature and that is cold has less temperature.
According to molecular theory, heat is defined as the sum of kinetic energy present in each molecule of a body.
According to molecular theory, the average of kinetic energy of molecules of the body is called temperature.
In Fahrenheit scale, lower fixed point is 32 degree Fahrenheit and upper fixed point is 212 degree Fahrenheit. The interval between lower fixed point and upper fixed point is 180.
In Kelvin scale, lower fixed point is 273k and upper fixed point is 373k. The interval between lower fixed point and upper fixed point is 100. This is SI unit of temperature.
In degree Celsius or in centigrade scale, lower fixed point is 0 degree Celsius and upper fixed point is 100 degree Celsius. The interval between upper fixed point and lower fixed point is 100.
|1. It is a form of energy, which gives us sensation of warmth.||1. It is the degree of hotness and coldness of a body.|
|2. It is a sum of kinetic energy of all molecules present in a body.||2. It is the average of kinetic energy of all molecules present in a body.|
|3. It is a cause||3. It is an effect.|
|4. The S.I unit of heat is joule.||4. Its S.I unit is Kelvin.|
|5. It is measured by instrument called calorimeter.||5. It is measured by the instrument called thermometer.|
It is an instrument, which is used to measure temperature of a body.
Generally, mercury and alcohol are used as thermometric substances. Mercury can measure the temperature ranging from -39 degree Celsius to 357 degree Celsius. If we need to measure the temperature below -39 degree Celsius, we should use alcohol thermometer. Alcohol thermometer can measure the temperature ranging from -117 degree Celsius to 78 degree Celsius.
Thermometer works on the principle that solid expand on heating and contract on cooling.
Lower Fixed Point:
The temperature at which ice melts into water is called Lower Fixed Point.
Upper Fixed Point:
The temperature in which water changes into steam is called upper fixed point.
Heat is measured in Joules (J) i.e. in SI units. In C.G.S. unit heat is measured in calorie and in F.P.S. (Foot Pound Second) heat is measured in erg.
The relation between them is 1 calorie = 4.2 J = 41840000 erg
How much the heat is supplied to raised the temperature of 100 g of water from 5°c to 90°c?( sp. heat capacity of water is 4200 jkg-1°c-1).
Here, mass of the waater (m) =100g
= 0.1 kg
Initial temperature (t1) = 5°c
finaltemperature (t2) = 90°c
∴ Rise in temperature (dt) = t2-t1
sp. heat capacity of water (s) =4200 jkg-1°c-1
∴ Amount of heat suppied(Q) =?
Q = msdt
= 0.01 x4200 x85
If 50 kj of heat is transfered to 10kg of water, what is the rise in its temperature ? The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 jkg-1°C-1.
Here, Heat supplied (Q) =50 kj
= 50× 1000j (∴1kj = 1000j)
Mass of water (m) = 10 kg
Sp. heat capacity of water (s) =4200jkg-1°c-1.
Rise in temperature (dt) = ?
We have, Q = msdt
Therefore , the rise in teemperature of water is 1.19°C.
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