## Introduction to Electricity

Subject: Science

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#### Overview

The path that is made of a conducting wire that carries current from negative terminal of a source to positive terminal of the source is called electric circuit. This note provides an information about electricity and types of circuits
##### Introduction to Electricity

In our modern days, we heavily rely on electricity to run our vehicle, mixer, water pumps and many more. We depend on electricity to light up our home and society. It has become one eternal part of our life. The use of electricity ranges from our home to small scale industry to large scale industry. There are various components and laws that we have to understand how electricity works.

### Electric Circuit:

The path that is made of a conducting wire that carries current from negative terminal of a source to positive terminal of the source is called electric circuit. To complete a circuit, we can add a load (bulb, heater or any appliance that uses electricity), a switch and fuse and other electric components to a circuit. For electricity to run our appliances in our home or in an industry the circuit has to be complete. There must be a continuous path for electrons to flow from negative terminal to positive terminal of the source. In an electric circuit, we can add or subtract loads and switches and other electric components (such as resistors, capacitors, rectifiers) according to our need. There are two types of electric circuit:

1. Closed Circuit: When the electricity is flowing in the circuit then that circuit is called closed circuit. For this to happen the switches if used must be on, along with the fuses if used are not broken and wire used is also not broken in any place.

2. Open Circuit: When the electricity in a circuit is not flowing then that circuit is called open circuit. This is because there is a disruption to the flow of electrons from negative topositive terminal of the cell. There are various ways to make an open circuit:
1. Addition of a switch and switching it off
2. Use of broken wire
3. Addition of broken fuse

##### Things to remember
• The path that is made of a conducting wire that carries current from negative terminal of a source to positive terminal of the source is called electric circuit.
• There are two types of electric circuit. They are open circuit and closed circuit.
• When the electricity is flowing in the circuit then that circuit is called closed circuit.
• When the electricity in a circuit is not flowing then that circuit is called open circuit.
• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
##### Questions and Answers
The rate flow of charges or electrons through an electric circuit is called electricity. In other words, electric current is defined as the flow of the charge per second. The SI unit of electricity is ampere. It is denoted by letter "A".
The circular conducting path of the electric current made connecting a source of electricity, resistance and wires properly is called electric circuit. Electric circuit contains three main components which are as follows: -
• A source of electricity such as cell battery, generator, etc.
• The wire made from conductors
• The appliance that take and consume electrical energy such as electric bulb, fan, heater, electric motor, etc.
The electrical energy can be transformed to different types of energy. This is called the effect of current electricity. The effects of the current electricity are as follows:
• Heating effects
• Lighting effects
• Chemical effects
• Magnetic effects
Elecricity is produced when an elecron moves from negative terminal (place having high numbers of electron) to positive terminal (place having low number of electrons).

The main switchbox is usually made up of brown black bakellite.

Given,

Power(P) = 60W

Potential difference (V) = 220 V

Current (I) = ?

We know,

P =IV

or, I= $\frac{P}{V}$

= $\frac{60}{220}$

0.27 A

∴ Required current (I) = 0.27A

Again , we have

V= IR

or, R = $\frac{V}{R}$

= $\frac{220}{0.27}$

= 814.81Ω

∴ Required resistance (R) = 814.81Ω

Given,

Power (P) = 40 W

Potenttial difference (V) = 220 V

Current (I) =?

We have,

P =IV

∴ I = $\frac{P}{V}$

= $\frac{40}{220}$

= $\frac{2}{11}$

= 0.18 A

##### Quiz

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