Introduction to Classification

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Overview

Taxonomy is the functional science that deals about the identification classification and nomenclature of living things. The systematic arrangements of living things into different groups based on their closely related characters are called classification. This note is a short introduction to classification of living beings.
Introduction to Classification

Taxonomy: The functional science that deals with the identification classification and nomenclature of living things is called taxonomy.

Classification: The systematic arrangements of living things into different groups based on their closely related characters are called classification.

Nomenclature: the process of giving scientific names to the living beings is called nomenclature.

Binomial system of nomenclature: The process of giving scientific names to the living beings by using two Greek words which are for genus and species is called binomial system of nomenclature.

Genus: The group of closely related species is called genus.

Species: The groups of organisms that are morphologically identical and sexually isolated are called species.

Rules for writing scientific names:

  1. The initial letter of the generic name of an organism should be written in capital letter.
  2. The specific name should be written in small letters.
  3. The scientific names should be underlined separately when writing on paper and should be italicized while typing.

    E.g. Homo sapiens (Electronic) Homo sapiens (when handwritten)

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    Common name Generic name Specific name
    Man Homo sapiens
    Cat Felis catus
    Mustard Brassica juncea
    Pea Pisum sativum
    Maize Zea mays

Significance of Binomial nomenclature

  1. The binomial name of the organism is universal through the world. A single species has different common name all over the world but scientific name helps that species to individualize.
  2. The nomenclature shows evolutionary relationship among various species of the same genus
  3. It shows the relationship between different varieties of the genus.
  4. Scientific names are based on characters and classification. So, binomial nomenclature makes the study of organism scientific and practical.
  5. Scientific name can be changed if necessary.

Importance of classification

  1. It provides support in favor of evolution.
  2. It takes a short period for the better understanding of organism.
  3. It suggests our ways of giving scientific names to the organisms.
  4. It provides us information regarding the natural relationship of organisms.
  5. It solves the problem of putting the organisms in their proper position.
Things to remember
  • Taxonomy is the functional science that deals about the identification classification and nomenclature of living things.
  • The systematic arrangements of living things into different groups based on their closely related characters are called classification.
  • The process of giving scientific names to the living beings is called nomenclature.
  • A single species has different common name all over the world but scientific name helps that species to individualize.
  • Classification helps to solve the problem of putting the organisms in their proper position and provides us information regarding the natural relationship of organisms.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
Videos for Introduction to Classification
Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature
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Classification of Living Things
Questions and Answers
Any living organism is given two names, the first name is Genus and the second name is Species. Both these names are in Latin. This process of giving two names of any living organisms is called binomial system of nomenclature. The scientific name of mango is Magnifera indica and that of frog is Rana tigrina.
The plants that do not bear flower or have no or less developed vascular systems are called cryptogams. Cryptogams are divided into three divisions- Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta.

The scientific name of mustard plant is Brassica   campestris.

Kingdom- Plantae

Sub-kingdom- Phanerogams

Division- Angiosperms

Type- Mustard

The branch of science that deals with the study of classification of living organisms is called taxonomy. The largest taxon is 'kingdom'.

Those organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring are said to belong to one species. Homo sapiens (Humans) and Rana tigrina (frog) are the two examples of species.

Cryptogam consists of all non flowering plants. These plants are simple and most of them lack vascular bundles. As ferns bear vascular bundles to conduct water, mineral, photosynthesis products from one part to another, they are considered as the most developed cryptogams.
Fern plants belong to pteridophyta of cryptogams. These plants are often called amphibian plants because of their habitat. They are mostly found in cold, moist and shady places.
The science which deals with the identification, nomenclature and classification of plants and animals is known as taxonomy or systematic biology. Caroleus Linnaeous is regarded as the “Father of Taxonomy”.
Any living organism is given two names, the first name is Genus and the second one species. Both these names are in Latin. This process of giving two names to any living organism is called binomial system of nomenclature.
The arrangement of taxonomic groups in their proper order according to their taxonomic character is called taxonomic hierarchy. The basic components of taxonomic hierarchy are classification, identification, description and nomenclature.
The arrangement of living beings (plants and animals) into groups based on the particular characters is called classification of living beings.
Any two importance of classification of organisms are:-
  1. It provides support in favour of evolution.
  2. It makes the study of organisms easy and scientific.
  3. It takes short period for better understanding of plants and animals.
The three significances of binomial system of nomenclature are as follows:-
  1. The binomial name of the organisms is universal throughout the world. A single species has got own name all over the world.
  2. The nomenclature shows the evolutionary relationships among various species of the same genus. It shows the relationship between the different varieties of species.
  3. Scientific names can be changed if necessary.

A group of organisms living in an area and capable of breeding together can be termed as species. The species is fundamental unit of classification.

The scientific name of human being is Homo sapiens.
The plants that do not bear flower and have no or less developed vascular systems are called cryptogams. Cryptogams is divided into three divisions:- Thallophyta, Bryophyta and Pteridophyta.
Division - Angiosperm
Sub-division - Monocot
Phylum – Chrodata
Class - Amphibia
Division - Angiosperm
Sub-division – Monocot
The scientific name of mustard plant is Brassica campestris.*
The Classification:
Kingdom - Plantie
Sub-kingdom - Phanerogams
Division - Angiosperms
Type- Mustard
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