Hydrocarbons

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Overview

The compounds which are formed as a result of combination of hydrogen and carbon is called hydrocarbon. This note has brief description about hydrocarbons, their types and how they are named.
Hydrocarbons

The compounds which are formed as a result of combination of hydrogen and carbon is called hydrocarbon.

http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/SDgraphics/PSgraphics/HydroCarbon.GIF

Study of hydrocarbon is an important work as almost all organic compounds are made from hydrogen and carbon. Moreover, their study is done in a separate branch of chemistry called organic chemistry.

* IUPAC = International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

Types of hydrocarbon

Mainly, hydrocarbons are of two types:

Saturated hydrocarbon

Those hydrocarbons in which a single covalent bond is present in between two carbon atoms (C-C) then they are called saturated hydrocarbons. Example: Methane (CH4)

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Structure of CH4

Their common name is alkane and their general formula is CnH2n+2 (where "n" indicates the number of carbon atom.) According to the number of a carbon atom, we can use the following prefix in front of "ane" of the alkane.

C = 1, then "meth"

c = 2, then "eth"

c=3, then "prop"

c = 4, then "but"

c = 5, then "pent"

c = 6, then "hex"

c = 7, then "hept"

c = 8, then "oct"

c = 9, then "non"

c = 10, then "dec"

http://wiki.chemprime.chemeddl.org/images/f/f1/Chapter_8_page_8new.jpg

Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

Those hydrocarbons which contain multiple covalent bonds (i.e. double or triple bond) in between two carbon atoms are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.

So, they are two types:

  1. Alkene

    Those unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains at least one ' double' covalent bond in between carbon and carbon is known as thealkene.

    Example: C2H4

    http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/@api/deki/files/1517/ethene.png?size=bestfit&width=214&height=163&revision=1

    In alkene, the first derivative is "ethene". Their general formula is CnH2n. To unite their name, in the prefix of alkane, we add "ene" of the alkene.

    S.No. No. of carbon atoms Molecular Formula Condensed Formula Common of Alkenes IUPAC name
    1. n = 2 (eth) C2H4 CH2 = CH2 Ethylene Ethene
    2. n= 3 (prop) C3H6 CH3- CH = CH2 Propylene Propene
    3. n = 4 (but) C4H8 CH3-CH2-CH = CH2 Butylene Butene
  2. Alkyne

    Those unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain at least "triple" covalent bond between carbon and carbon atom is known as alkyne. In alkyne, the first derivative is ethyne. Their general formula is CnH2n-2. To write their name, in the prefix of alkane, we add " yne" of the alkyne.

    S.No No. of carbon atoms Molecular Formula Condensed Formula Common names of alkynes IUPAC names
    1 n = 2 (eth) C2H2 HC ≡CH Acetylene Ethyne
    2 n = 3 (prop) C3H4 CH3- C ≡CH Allelyne Propyne

Common system of nomenclature of hydrocarbons

The IPUAC name of any organic compound consists of two parts, root word and suffix. While naming, find the root word on the basis of number of carbon present in the hydrocarbon.

c = 1, then "meth"

c = 2, then "eth"

c=3, then "prop"

c = 4, then "but"

c = 5, then "pent"

c = 6, then "hex"

c = 7, then "hept"

c = 8, then "oct"

c = 9, then "non"

c = 10, then "dec"

After finding the root word, join the suffix ane (alkane), ene (alkene), yne (alkyne) to the root word.

Example: CH3 - CH = CH2

Number of carbon = 3 = Prop

Number of bonds between carbon - carbon atoms = 2 = ene

According to the rules, the names of hydrocarbon

Prop + ene = propene

Things to remember
  • The compounds which are formed as a result of combination of hydrogen and carbon is called hydrocarbon.
  • Types of hydrocarbon: saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Those hydrocarbons in which a single covalent bond is present in between two carbon atoms (C-C) then they are called saturated hydrocarbons. Example: Methane (CH4 )
  • Those hydrocarbons which contain multiple covalent bond (i.e. double or triple bond) in between two carbon atoms are called unsaturated hydrocarbons. They are of two types: Alkene and Alkyne
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
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Questions and Answers
The compound which are formed by the bonding of carbon and hydrogen atom are called hydrocarbon. There are two types of hydrocarbon on the basis of bonding. They are saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Saturated hydrocarbons are also known as paraffin because they are chemically less reactive.
IUPAC – International Union of pure and Applied Chemistry.
The organic compounds that have similar molecular formula but different structural formula are called isomers.
Saturated hydrocarbon Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  1. Hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are connected only by single bonds are saturated hydrocarbons.
  2. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbon is CnH2n+2 where n stands for the number of carbon.
  3. E.g. Methane, Ethane, etc.
  1. Hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms are connected by double or triple bonds are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  2. The general formula for unsaturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n or CnH2n-2 where n stands for number carbon atom.
  3. E.g. Ethene, Ethyne, etc.
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