A homologous series is a group of organic compounds, which has the same functional group, but two successive members differ by CH2 group.
The hydrocarbon unit derived by the removal of one hydrogen atom from an alkane is called alkyl group or the alkyl radical. The name of an alkyl radical is written by replacing the ending "ane" of the alkane with "ayl".
i.e. Alkane -> Alkyl radical
|1.||CH4 (Methane)||CH3 (Methyl)|
|2.||C2H6 (Ethane)||C2H5 (Ethyl)|
|3.||C3H8 (propane)||C3H7 (propyl)|
|4.||C4H10 (Butane)||C4H9 (butyl)|
It is defined as an atom or group of atoms (radical) which determines the chemical behavior of the organic compounds.
|S.No||Name of functional group||Symbol of functional group||Organic compounds|
When an alkyl group combines with a functional group, an organic compound is formed. Example:
-CH3+ -OH \(\longrightarrow\) CH3OH
Write the common name and IUPAC name of the following.
|Formula||Common Name||IUPAC Name|
|CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – CH3||n – Butane||Butane|
|CH3 – CH = CH2||Propylene||Propane|
|HC ≡ CH||Acetylene||Ethyne|
The characteristics of homologous series are:
1. Each successive member differs by CH2.
2. All members of the series can be prepared by similar method of preparation.
3. All the members show similar physical and chemical properties.
4. All members must have same functional group.
Following are the characteristics of homologous series:
What is meant by homologous series in organic compound?
A series of related hydrocarbons that have the same functional group and can be denoted by the common general formula is called homologous series.
The individual member of homologous series is called homologue.
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