Effects of Unplanned Development Activities and Their Mitigating Measures
People conduct various developmental activities from small to large ones. If man conducts development works with proper plans in an Eco-friendly way, such works have no such a challenging impact on the environment. However, such development works are without the plan and they are not environment-friendly, they will have negative impacts on existing environment. The effects of unplanned development on environment and their mitigating measures are as follows: -
Urbanisation is a process of increasing in the area of urban centres and proportion of people living in that area. In this modern age, the process of urbanisation also grows along with the process of industrial development. The increase in population pressure causes the surrounding areas of town change in urban areas. Hence, urbanisation includes the urban area and the growth of population living there. Therefore, urbanisation not only denotes the growth of the area of towns but also the growth of population. In municipality and metropolitan city, there must be basic physical facilities like electricity, road, drinking water, communication, health and education.
The process of urbanisation needs proper planning. About half of the world's population is in theurban area. Migration from the rural area to urban area is increasing day by day. If there are unplanned building construction and settlement extension, mismanagement of sewage and garbage, lack of drinking water and electricity, then the process of urbanisation is unplanned. So, unplanned urbanisation means to develop town or area without planning infrastructure which is unhygienic and unhealthy for the settlement.
Effects of unplanned urbanisation :
Some of the alarming effects of unorganised urbanisation on environment are as follows: -
- Lack of facility :In the planned urban area, facilities for drinking water, health service, transport, electricity, communication, employment are available. However, in the unplanned urban area, various essential facilities will be inadequate to healthy life.
- Unhealthy settlement :Healthy settlement is one which is neat and clean. Open space, greenery, proper drainage system, safe drinking water, etc. make the residence pleasant. The residence area becomes unhealthy if the urbanisation is growing in an unplanned way and a lot of people migrate there for facilities. Unplanned urbanisation results in an unhealthy residence area.
- Unequal distribution of population :Facilities, means and resources are not adequate in unplanned urbanisation. The population pressure is high there. The limited space is much crowded. Consequently, population pressure in some places in the world is very high while it is very low in some places. The unequal distribution of population disturbs the balance of the environment.
- Social disorder :High population pressure is found in unplanned urban areas. Employment, health facility, transport, communication, etc. cannot be provided properly. Consequently, the struggle of people for limited means and resources creates social disorder like dispute, theft, lack of discipline, etc. increases in the society.
- Degradation in the environment :Resources like land, water, forest, etc. are excessively used while growing an unplanned city. People try to meet their requirements in whatever the way they can. Garbage increases due to dense and unplanned settlement. The environment is polluted. Due to air, land and water pollution, decline in the qualitative aspect of the environment can be seen
- Adverse effect on health :Because of unplanned urbanisation, random settlement increases. The drainage system, drinking water, road traffic, etc. are poorly managed. People are compelled to live on limited means of surviving. The health of the people can be impaired with suffered life.
The suitable measure to control the effects of unorganised urbanisation is simply the urbanisation after proper planning. Besides, the following means can be applied to solve the unplanned urbanisation: -
- Development of rural areas :Basic facilities like drinking water, electricity, health services, communication, education, etc. should be provided in the rural area. When the people get these facilities in their village, they will not be attracted to the cities. The development of the rural area can help to control the extension of unplanned urbanisation.
- Employment opportunities in rural areas :Trade, industry, construction work provide employment opportunities. These job providing and income-generating programmes should be conducted in the rural areas so that the villagers will get employment and will not migrate to urban areas.
- Balanced development :Development policy should be formulated considering the geographical situation of the country. A strategy should be adopted to start development activities proportionately in all areas. It will bring balance in the use of natural resources. It increases people’s participation in development activities in every region. These efforts will assist to mitigate adverse effects of unplanned urbanisation.
- Development of semi-urban areas :Development of a semi-urban area helps to check unplanned urbanisation. It is wise to set up middle-class towns according to the geographical situation in rural areas. Employment and labour-oriented programmes focusing youths should be conducted. The change of such places into town will control the migration and the growth of unplanned urbanisation.
Things to remember
- Urbanisation is a process of increasing n the area of urban centres and proportion of people living in those areas.
- In the planned urban area, facilities for drinking water, health service, transport, electricity, communication, employment are available.
- The healthy settlement is one which is neat and clean.
- The suitable measure to control the effects of unorganised urbanisation is simply the urbanisation after proper planning.
- It includes every relationship which established among the people.
- There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
- It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
- common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers
Destruction of natural resources and pollution are two main effects of development activities on environment.
To curb urban-orientation migration is an effective measure to control unmanaged urbanization.
Distribution of the development works in all the areas or region in a balanced condition to avoid their limited number in a single place is called Decentralization. It helps to balance the environment by following ways:
- Decentralization of resources avoids the pressure of population in a single place, which prevents from the over and under exploitation of natural resources.
- The effects of the development activities are also divided.
- Natural resources are equally utilized in all the areas.
The negative consequences by constructional works are as follows:
- Degradation in ecosystem
- Destruction of natural resources
- Degradation of agricultural land
- Changes in natural structure
- Scenery obstruction
Dormitory town means the village areas that are facilitated with necessary services and facility but not as modeled as that in the town. Such areas are developed by providing essential services to village areas like electricity, communication, etc. It helps to reduce the evil subsequences of unorganized urbanization because:
- People are provided with facilities that help to reduce the population in town.
- People don't have to leave their village insearch of employment and facilities.
- Natural resources of the town are preserved form destruction and the resources of the village are also preserved.
The effects of development works on environment are:
- Overuse of resources due to development work may affect ecosystem.
- Development works alter or damage the habitat of living beings.
- Deforestation, industrialization and urbanization cause pollution and climate change.
- Large buildings cause obstruction of nature scene of nature and religious site.
- The pollution of the atmosphere due to forest depletion and industrialization causes ozone depletion and green house effect. It further results in global warming and disturbance in life cycle.
Unplanned urbanization brings very serious problems which can be listed as follows:
- High population concentration leads to lack of facilities such as services such as health services, education, drinking water, transportation electricity etc.
- Unplanned settlement will destroy the natural scenery and thus, area looks ugly.
- Waste disposal is mismanaged and entertainment and recreational opportunities are rare.
- Overuse of resources, mismanagement of wastage and industries result in environmental degradation.
- Due to pressure on available facilities and opportunities, conflict may arise among people.
Due to human activities, the following adverse effects are seen on the environment:
- Depletion of forest
- Depletion of creature
- Change in natural structure
- Industrial pollution
- Excessive use of chemical goods
Industrial pollution: Due to unmanaged industrial development, environment gets polluted. Factories release various types of gases which cause air pollution. Similarly, harmful chemicals released from factories have become landfill site waste due to the lack of their re-use and re-cycle. These activities are very harmful for the survival of living creatures.