Hepatitis and STDs
A disease characterized by inflammation of liver is known as hepatitis. There are five main types of hepatitis that are caused by a virus:
- D and
This is caused by eating infected food or water. The food or water is infected with a virus called HAV (hepatitis A virus). Anal-oral contact during sex can also be a cause. Nearly everyone who develops Hepatitis A makes a full recovery - it does not lead to chronic disease.
2. Hepatitis B:
It is a disease cause by type B hepatitis virus (HBV). It is one of the common diseases of liver and it is 100 times more infectious than HIV and AIDS. This disease develops gradually without symptoms. So, it is known as 'Silent Killer'. Its incubation period is 6 weeks to 6 months. The patient dies of cirrhosis and cancer of the liver.
- Sexual contact. You may become infected if you have unprotected sex with an infected partner whose blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body.
- Sharing of needles. HBV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood.
- Accidental needle sticks. Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.
- Mother to child. Pregnant women infected with HBV can pass the virus to their babies during childbirth.
- Usually appear about one to four months after you've been infected
Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B, ranging from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B may include:
- Abdominal pain
- Dark urine
- Joint pain
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and vomiting
- Weakness and fatigue
- Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
2. Hepatitis C:
It is caused by type C hepatitis virus (HCV).
Mode of transmission
- Contaminated syringe, towels, toothbrush, etc.
- Unsafe blood transfusion
- Direct contact with the victim like kissing and sexual intercourse
- Intravenous drug abuse
It is transmitted to the embryo during pregnancy.
- Chronic infection in the liver
- Weakness and complete loss of appetite
- Abdominal discomfort
- Dark Urine
- Pale stool Preventing hepatitis
We have split this list of prevention tips into the individual variation types of hepatitis.
How to prevent hepatitis A
- Wash your hands with soap after going to the toilet
- Only consume food that has just been cooked
- Only drink commercially bottled water, or boiled water if you're unsure of local sanitation
- Only eat fruits that you can peel if you are somewhere where sanitation is unreliable
- Only eat raw vegetables if you are sure they have been cleaned/disinfected thoroughly
- Get a vaccine for hepatitis A if you travel to places where hepatitis may be endemic.
How to prevent hepatitis B
- Tell the partner if you are a carrier or try to find out whether he/she is a carrier
- Practice safe sex
- Only use clean syringes that have not been used by anyone else
- Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or manicure instruments
- Have a hepatitis B series of shots if you are at risk
- Only allow well sterilized skin perforating equipment (tattoo, acupuncture, etc.).
How to prevent hepatitis C
- If you are infected do not let others share your toothbrush, razor, manicure equipment
- If you are infected cover open wounds
- Do not share needles, toothbrushes, or manicure equipment
- If your skin is to be pierced, make sure equipment is well sterilized (tattoo, etc.)
- Go easy on the alcohol
- Do not share drug equipment.
How to prevent hepatitis D
- Use the same guidelines as for hepatitis B. Only a person who is infected with hepatitis B can become infected with hepatitis D.
How to prevent hepatitis E
- Do the same as you would to protect yourself from hepatitis A infection
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The sexually transmitted diseases are a group of communicable diseases that are transmitted through unsafe sexual contact. Virus, bacteria, pretoria, fungus ans ectoparasites cause them. The common STDs are syphilis, gonorrhoea, HIV/AIDS, etc.
Syphilis is a chronic sexually transmitted disease caused by 'spirochete' or Treponema Pallidum'. It mainly affects heart, liver and brain. The average incubation period of syphilis is approximately three weeks.
A single pain less lesion or sore called a chancre appears in the genitals, anus, lips, tongue, mouth, breast, fingers, etc and they disappear after 1-5 weeks of appearance.
After one week to six months of primary stage, the ulcer secondary syphilis signs appear which are as follows: -
- A copper-colored rash lasting about six weeks appears on the various parts of the body.
- Whitish patches in the mouth or throat
- 'Patchy' falling hair
- Low fever, poor appetite, weight loss
- Painless swelling of lymph glands
- Pain in bones and joints
In the final stage, the disease is considered communicable for approximately four years following initial infection. Syphilis, at the least stage, can become destructive in nature
- Heart diseases
- Paralysis (Spinal cord damage)
- Blindness (Eye problems)
- Infertility of female and male importance
- Awareness through education.
- Use sterile syringes.
- Avoid prostitution and sexual promiscuity.
- Syphilis can easily be treated with one injection of penicillin.
- Avoid personal belongings of infected person.
Gonorrhoea is an infection of genitourinary tract caused by Neisseria Gonococcus. It mainly affects the mucus membrane of genitourinary tract. Its incubation period is approximately 3-9 days.
Modes of transmission
- Sexual intercourse
- Direct contact
- Mother to baby
- Fomites to infected persons
- Painful and frequent urination
- Yellowish pus like discharge from vagina
- Swelling in genitals and urethra
- Red spots in the genitals.
- Female infertility
- Adopt healthy and appropriate sexual behaviour.
- Care to personal and genital hygiene.
- Increase female education and employment to avoid prostitution.
- Discourage unsafe sexual behaviour with others.
- Discourage girls trafficking, prostitution and multiple sex partner.
HIV and AIDS:
AIDS stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. It is caused by a retrovirus known as HIV (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus). AIDS is not a disease but a stage in which various symptoms and syndromes can emerge.
Modes of transmission
- Unsafe sexual contact with HIV infected person.
- Contaminated blood transfusion.
- Mother to baby
- Use of skin-piercing injection, blade, etc. without sterilization.
Signs and symptoms
a. Major Signs
- Weight loss more than 10% of the body weight
- Continuous diarrhea for more than one month
- Continuous fever for more than one month
b. Minor signs
- Persistent cough for more than one month
- Generalized itchy skin disease
- Seen various types of herpes
- Thrush in mouth and throat.
- Avoid sexual relation with others except one's spouse.
- Use disposable syringes
- Safe blood transfusion
- Regular cleanliness of the genitals.
- Use of contraceptives