## Measures of Mortality and Migration

Subject: EPH

#### Overview

Migration is another process of demography that deals with the change in the size and composition of the population by migrating from one place to another. This is the note about the measures of mortality and migration.

##### Measures of Mortality and Migration

Death rate refers to the decrease in the size of the population. A declining death rate due to the modern scientific heath services and a constant birth rate have been the major causes of rapid population growth in Nepal.

Three measures that are commonly used to estimate mortality rates are as follows: -

1. Crude Death Rate (CDR)
2. Age-Specific Death Rate (ASDR)
3. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

##### 1. Crude Death Rate(CDR)

Crude Death Rate is a simple measure of mortality. It gives the number of deaths occurring in a given population during a specified year per 1000 of the population at mid-year.

##### 2. Age-Specific Death Rate(ASDR)

Death rates of infants (0-1 year), children of 1-5 years or may be of adults beyond 60+ years can be measured during a specific year in a given population per 1000 specified age groups in the population at midyear. So, the age-specific death rate is the rate of deaths occurring in a certain age group of people in a place within a year.

##### 3. Infant Mortality Rate(IMR)

Infants are considered as the age group of 0-1-year-old. IMR measures the mortality rate prior to the age below one. The infant mortality rate is calculated as follows: -

#### Measures of migration

Migration is another process of demography and deals with the change in the size and composition of the population by migrating from one place to another. There are two types of migration. They are national and international migration. In both of these migrations, there are two ways of the flow of population inflow and outflow. People who flow-in from another place or country are called immigrants and those who flow out from their native place or country is emigrants.

Various measures of migration are as follows: -

1. In-Migration Rate
2. Out-Migration Rate
3. Net Migration Rate
4. Gross Migration Rate

##### 1. In-MigrationRate

In-Migration Rate deals with the people coming into a place or a country.

##### 2. Out-Migration Rate

Out-Migration Rate deals with the people leaving the place of origin within or outside the country.

##### 3. Net MigrationRate

Net Migration Rate refers to the difference of migrants, i.e. in-migrants and out-migrants. In other words, net migration rate is the ratio of net migration and the mid-year population in a year per every thousand population of that place.

##### 4. Gross MigrationRate

Gross Migration Rate deals with the measurement of the total volume of migration or population turnover a country or a place experiences in a particular year.

##### Things to remember
• Death rate refers to the decrease in the size of population.
• Infants are considered as the age group of 0-1 year old.
• Migration is another process of demography and deals with the change in the size and composition of the population by migrating from one place to another.
• Net migration rate refers to the difference of migrants, i.e. in-migrants and out-migrants.
• It includes every relationship which established among the people.
• There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
• It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
• common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
##### Distilled Demographics: The Death Rate
Crude death rate (CDR) is the number of deaths in a certain year expressed per 1000 of the mid-year population.
Infant mortality rate refers to the death of babies below 1 years of age born in a certain year in every 1000 of the total live births of the same time.
The process of leaving a place to go to live somewhere else is known as emigration.
Immigration means the process of coming to a certain place for settlement from somewhere else.
The sum total of the number of people coming to certain place for settlement (immigrants) and those going out (emigrant) is known as gross migration rate.
If a city has a total population of 60000 and 300 people have settled there from elsewhere, its immigration rate is 5 per thousand.

The difference between immigrant and emigrant is known as net migration. It is expressed in 1000 of mid –year population.

Solution:
Here,
Midyear Population (P) =60,555
No. of live birth (B) =3065
Death (D) = 1609

CBR=?
CDR=?
We know that,
CBR= B × 1000 / P
= 3065 × 1000 / 60,555
=50.6
CBR=50.6 per thousand

Similarly,
CDR=D × 1000 / P
=1609 × 1000 /60,555
=26.5
CDR= 26.5 per thousand
Given,
Total mid-year population of the given district =15oooo
Total deaths=1000
Out-migrants =2000
Immigrants=1500
Crude death rate (CDR) =?

We know,
CDR= Total deaths /total mid-year population*1000
= 1000/150000*1000
= 6.66 People

Again,
We know,
GMR=out-migrates +immigrated/total mid-year population*1000
= 2000+1200/150000*1000
= 21.33 people

Therefore, the Crude Death Rate (CDR) and Gross Migration Rate (GMR) of that district are 6.66 people and 21.33 people per 1000 mid-year population.

Given,
Total deaths among the babies of 0-4 age group births= 1100
Mid-year population= 22000
Age specific mortality rate(ASMR)= ?

We know,
ASMR =Total death on a certain age group/total mid-year population *1000

=1100/22000*1000
=50 per thousand.
Therefore, the age specify mortality rate(0-4) of the district was 50 per thousand mid-year population of the same age group.