Biodiversity

Subject: EPH

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Overview

Biodiversity means to have different types of species or ecosystem in the given region. This note is about the biodiversity,ecosystem and their importance and measures of biodiversity.

Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the total number of existing living organisms and their variation on the earth. The biodiversity of a place indicates bacteria, gene, living beings, and ecosystem existing in per meter square of land.

 

There are three different classes of biodiversity. They are species, ecosystem, and genes.

 

1. Species

Species means different types of animals, vegetation, crops found in the ecosystem. They include living beings and vegetation like man, elephant, birds, wheat, potato, etc. In Nepal 0.03% of species are available. Species denote the number of group of living beings according to their similarity.

 

2. Ecosystem

Eco-system is the biological community of interactive living beings in their natural setting. Living beings survive according to their capacity and adaptation. Biodiversity is the result of the structure of the ecosystem, too.

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3. Genes

Gene is a heredity character of living beings which is found in the nucleus of the living cell. It controls physical characteristics, growth and development of living being. They change and reproduce themselves. They are passed on from one generation to another.

 

Ecosystem diversity

The diversity within the ecosystem is the diversity of habitats and life of form within the system. It also refers to the type of ecosystem found within a bio-geographical or political boundary as it may be further referred to the variety of the ecological regions- The Terai, The Mountain and The Hill ecosystems. There are 118 ecosystems in Nepal. Similarly, 75 types vegetation and 35 types of forest recorded in Nepal. In Nepal, there are all types of ecosystems except desert and ocean ecosystems found in the world.

Genetic diversity

Various plants and animals of the earth have some kind of variety even among themselves. This variation is due to the ‘gene’, which is found in the nucleus of the body cell. Genes carry the hereditary characters from parents to offsprings. Therefore, the genes have contributed maintaining the biodiversity.

Species diversity

Species, as a unit, is used to classify the millions of life forms of the earth. Each species is distinct and different from another species. A group of individuals which can interbreed or attract to interbreed each other is known as species. Monkey and tiger are distinct species, as cows and buffaloes. Species diversity refers to the frequency and variety of species within a specific geographical area. There are 153 species of different crops, 92 species of cereals, 42 species of paddy, 26 species of wheat,15 species of maize.There are 364 weed species, 500 species of edible plants, 200 plants species, 100 varieties of major fruits, 200 vegetables and 10 varieties of potato.

Things to remember
  • Biodiversity means to have different types of species or ecosystem in the given region.
  • Agricultural production, plant and animal production, natural source and scene, tourism and economic development, study and research, etc are some of the importance of biodiversity.
  • Species are different from each other due to climate, water, vegetation, temperature and formation of land.
  • Knowledge and information of biodiversity, religious value, conservation law, income generation, etc are some measures of biodiversity.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
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Questions and Answers

181 species of mammals are found in our country.

The species of fish found in Nepal is 182.

The varied range of flora and fauna is known as biodiversity.

Angiosperm species of vegetation is found most in Nepal.

Desert ecosystem is not found in Nepal.

The 'World Biodiversity Day' is celebrated every year on 22nd May.

Nepal occupied about 8.5 percent bird species of the world.
About 100 species of reptiles are found in Nepal.

640 species of butterflies are found in Nepal.

Wetland ecosystem is important due to following reasons:

  • The wetland region is always humid and contains the water and vapor required for the animals and plants to continue the ecosystem cycle.
  • The land is beyond the encroachment. Therefore, it cannot be degraded.
  • The constructional works do not take place here and ecosystem cannot be destroyed.

Nepal has covered only about 0.1% land of the world but it has great diversity of species. This diversity is found different as the ecosystem is different from Terai to himalayan region. Therefore, Nepal is rich in biodiversity. Nepal has almost all ecosystems except desert and ocean, which is the cause of diversity of species. The following statistics given by biodiversity project profile proves that Nepal is rich in biodiversity:

  • Mammals=181
  • Aves= 852
  • Spiders=144
  • Butterfly=181
  • Fish=182
  • Algae and so on= 687

The interrelationship between the abiotic and biotic factors of the environment is ecosystem. If one factor is affected, it affects another. This relationship makes the ecosystem. If an element of ecosystem is affected or if there is loss in any element of ecosystem, the balance of whole system is affected that directly affects life of living beings. Therefore, the loss in ecosystem is the loss of biodiversity.

Biodiversity is classified into three divisions:

  • Ecosystem Diversity
  • species Diversity
  • Genetic Diversity

Ecosystem Diversity: Ecosystem is a habitat of living being. Each organism has its own heredity character, which helps them to adopt and survive in their habitat . Nepal occupies 0.1% of land of the earth. The climatic situation, food and habitat determine the survival of living organism. There is about 118 ecosystems in Nepal.
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