Subject: Computer Science

Loop is a statement which executes one or more lines of code in certain number of times. The loop ends with the false condition. Every loop statement requires the following terms:

**Counter:**It is a variable which controls the loop statement and provides the track to run the loop statement in certain number of times.**Initial Value:**The string value of loop statement is known as initial value.**Sentient Value:**This is the final value of loop statement.**Step value:**It is used to modify the value of counter by certain amount.

**If...GOTO LOOP**

This program use IF----GOTO to create a loop.

x= 10

start:

Print x

x= x+1 ( This adds 1 to x)

If x < 15 Then GOTO start **Output**

10

11

12

13

14

**For.....NEXT **

It is the count controlled loop which knows how many times the loop is to be executed. The loop is executed with the loop control variable at initial value to final value and values in between.

**WHILE....WEND **

It is a loop statement that executes a series of statements in a loop as long as the given statement is true.

An array is a special type of variable with an unique name, size and type. In another words, an array is a data structure that stores multiple values of similar type with a common name bu having different subscript. An array is defined by using DIM statement. There are two types of array:

**Single Dimensional Array:**An array having series of similar type of data represented by a variable with a single subscript or index value known as single dimensional array. Example: DIM NUM (6), It defines a single dimensional array having named NUM having six sub-scripted variables.**Multidimensional Array:**An array having series of similar type of data represented by a variable with double subscripts is known as multidimensional array.

**DIM**

**Syntax:** DIM [ array name] [ value ]**Example:**DIM kul (5)

The branching statement is decision making statement, depending upon the decision it can change the order of execution.

**IF......THEN Statement **

It helps the computer to check whether the relation is TRUE or FALSE.**Syntax:** Line Number IF ( relational expression) THEN n where n is a line number or an instruction. If the expression is true then n will be executed otherwise statement following IF..THEN statement will be executed.

**IF....THEN....ELSE **

It is a decision making statement as it decides the path of the program.**Syntax: **If (Condition) ...THEN (Line number or instruction) .....ELSE (Line number or instruction)

**IF_ _ _ _ _ ELSEIF Statement **

**Syntax: **IF ( Condition ) THENStatement-1ELSEIF (Condition) THENStatement-2ELSEIF (Conditon) THENStatement-ELSEStatement-4ENDIF

**SELECT-CASE Statement**

**Syntax:** SELECT CASE ( expression )

Statement-1

Case ( expression )

Statement-2

Case ( expression )

Statement-3

Case ELSE

Statement-4

END SELECT

Numeric functions are the type of library function which are used to process numeric or string data and always returns numeric value.

** Some numeric functions are as follows: **

**LEN FUNCTION:**It is string processing function that return the number of characters in a string and it also returns the number of bytes required by a variable.**ASC FUNCTION:**It returns the ASCII (AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE) code of the first character of a string expression.**VAL FUNCTION:**It converts a string expression consisting of numeric digits into number and returns the number a value.**ABS FUNCTION:**It returns the absolute value of numeric expression or converts a negative number to a positive number.**INT FUNCTION:**It rounds and returns the largest integer less than or equal to a numeric expression.**FIX FUNCTION:**It returns the integer part of numeric expression.**CINT FUNCTION:**It converts a numeric expression to an integer by rounding the fractional part of the expression.**SGN FUNCTION:**It returns the sign of the number.**SQR FUNCTION:**It returns the square root of any positive number.**SIN FUNCTION:**It returns the sine of a specified angle.**COS FUNCTION:**It returns the cosine of a specified angle.**TAN FUNCTION:**It returns the tangent of a specified angle.

- Loop is a statement which executes one or more lines of code in certain number of times.
- An array is a special type of variable with an unique name, size and type. In another words, an array is a data structure that stores multiple values of similar type with a common name bu having different subscript.
- The Branching Statement
- The branching statement is decision making statement, depending upon the decision it can change the order of execution.
- Numeric functions are the type of library function which are used to process numeric or string data and always returns numeric value.

- It includes every relationship which established among the people.
- There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
- It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
- common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

Using SUB Procedure:

DECLARE SUB SUM(A$)

CLS

INPUT"Enter any string";A$

CALL SUM(A$)

END

SUB SUM(A$)

FOR I = 1 to LEN(A$)

B$= Ucase$(MID$(A$,I,1))

S=S+ASC(B$)

NEXT I

PRINT"Sum of ASCII value";S

END SUB

Declare Sub Kul ( )

CLS

Call kul ( )

END

Sub kul ( )

C=1

While C <= 10

Print C

C= C+1

Wend

End

DECLARE SUB Array( a( ) )

CLS

DIM a(5)

FOR I = 1 to 5

INPUT" Enter any number"; a(i)

NEXT I

CALL Array( a( ) )

END

SUB Array ( a( ) )

FOR I = 1 to 5

PRINT a(i)

NEXT I

END SUB

DECLARE FUNCTION Kins( a( ) )

CLS

DIM a(5)

FOR I = 1 to 5

INPUT"Enter the number"; a(i)

NEXT I

PRINT kins ( a ( ) )

FOR I = 1 to 5

SUM = SUM + a(i)

NEXT I

Kins= SUM

END FUNCTION

DECLARE SUB Even (n( ) )

CLS DIM n(5)

FOR I= 1 to 5

INPUT" Enter the number"; n(i)

NEXT I

CALL Even ( n ( ) )

END

SUB Even( n ( ) )

END

SUB Even (n ( ) )

FOR I = 1 to 5

R= n(i) mod 2 =0

SUM = SUM + n(i)

NEXT I

PRINT"Sum of even numbers is";SUM

END SUB

DECLARE SUB Array (n( ) )

CLS

DIM n(10 )

FOR I= 1 to 10

INPUT" Enter any number";n(i)

NEXT I

CALL Array( n ( ) )

END

SUB Array (n( ) )

END

SUB Array ( n ( ) )

FOR I = 1 to 10

IF n(i) > max THEN max= n(i)

NEXT I

PRINT" Maximum number";Max

END SUB

Using SUB Procedure:

DECLARE SUB Greatest(A,B,C)

CLS

INPUT"Enter the first number";A

INPUT"Enter the second number";B

INPUT"Enter the third number";C

CALL Greatest (A,B,C)

END

SUB Greatest(A,B,C)

IF A >B AND A > C THEN

PRINT"A is greatest"

ELSEIF B > A AND B > C THEN

PRINT"B is greatest"

ELSE

PRINT"C is greatest"

ENDIF

END SUB

DECLARE FUNCTION Smallest$( A,B,C)

CLS

INPUT"Enter the first number";A

INPUT"Enter the second number";B

INPUT"Enter the third number";C

PRINT Smallest$ (A,B,C)

END

FUNCTION Smallest$( A,B,C)

IF A < B AND A < C THEN

Smallest$="A is smallest"

ELSEIF B < A AND B < C THEN

Smallest$="B is smallest"

ELSE

Smallest$= "C is smallest"

END

31 to 60 Third

61 to 75 Second

76 to 85 First

Above 90 Distinction

DECLARE SUB Per( P )

CLS

INPUT"Enter your percentage";P

CALL Per ( P )

END

SUB Per ( P )

SELECT CASE P

CASE is < 30

PRINT"You are fail"

CASE 31 to 60

PRINT"You are third"

CASE 61 to 75

PRINT"You are second"

CASE 76 to 85

PRINT"You are first"

CASE ELSE

PRINT"You are distinction"

END SELECT

END SUB

Using FUNCTION Procedure:

DECLARE FUNCTION Age$(A)

CLS

INPUT"Enter your age";A

PRINT Age$(A)

END

FUNCTION Age$(A)

IF A >= 18 THEN

Age$= "You can give vote"

ELSE

Age$= "You can't give vote"

ENDIF

END FUNCTION

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