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Note on Effects on the Terai Ecosystem and its Mitigating Measures

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Due to human activities, development, construction and modernization, the ecosystem of Terai region has been adversely affected.

Some of the efforts and mitigating measures are as follows.

  1. Use of forest and its protection

    The density of population is high in this region.In this area people depend upon the forest materials and agricultural protection. They destroy forest for cultivation and settlement. The dense forest of Terai is being destroyed gradually which brings more probability of depletion of forest in near future. The awareness programme should be conducted to preserve forest. People should also participate in the plantation and conservation programmes.

  2. Use of land and its conservation

    Agricultural activities are more in Terai region because of fertile land. The farmers use chemical fertilizer for more and better production. The fertility of land of Terai has begun to diminish due of flood, landslide and over encroachment of human activities.

    The use of chemical and fertilizer should be minimized, the soil erosion of the hill should be checked and people should be made aware about the land conservation to protect the land of the Terai region.

  3. Livestock farming

    The livestock farming such as cattle and goat for milk, meat, manure and other purposes have also been done in this region. People take cattle in forest and pasture to graze. The forest and pasture are depleting due to overgrazing.

    Animals should not be allowed to graze freely because they destroy the young and valuable plants. Positive attitude towards conservation of ecosystem should be developed to protect the environment.

  4. Construction work and conservation

    The construction work is rapidly increasing in this region. It disturbs the natural environment. Construction works have also disturbed the lifestyle of wildlife and birds. The road, dam, canal etc. are the construction works that directly affect the ecosystem.

    The rational attitude should be developed while conducting the construction works. The construction work should be eco-friendly.

  5. Industrial development and pollution control

    Terai is rich in raw materials. All types of raw materials required for the industry are available here. Different types of industries like jute industry, sugar industry, paper industry etc are established here. These industries emit smoke, harmful gases, chemical etc. and pollute the environment.

    The industries should be managed properly. Wastage and sewage from industries should be treated carefully before discharging to the land and water resources.

Measures to minimize the adverse effects of Modernization

Modernization and developmental activities are the necessity of life. It makes our life easier, more comfortable and safer. Modernization and development without environmental conservation is harmful to us in the long term.

Therefore, the following measures should be considered to minimize the adverse effects of modernization and development:

  • While using the natural resources, the ecosystem should not be disturbed.
  • We should avoid construction work in such areas where a large number of birds and animals reside.
  • While constructing roads, industries, canal and dams, proper environmental conservation programme should be integrated with the construction work.
  • There must be proper management of sewage and drainage system.
  • There must be provision of dustbin, public toilets in certain public places.
  • We should encourage the concept of planned housing project and discourage the random housing practices.

  • Due to human activities, development, construction and modernization, the ecosystem of Terai region has been adversely affected.
  • The livestock farming such as cattle and goat for milk, meat, manure and other purposes has also been done in Terai region.
  • Wastage and sewage from industries should be treated carefully before discharging to the land and water resources.
  • A clean and green environment is a symbol of civilization.
  • While using the natural resources, the ecosystem should not be disturbed.
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Very Short Questions

Terai region is situated at the altitude of 60 to 610 meters from the sea level and it expanded from east to west on the southern part of Nepal. This area covers about 17% of total land of Nepal. This region has plain land with warm and humid climate. There are 20 districts of Nepal in this region. This region can be divided into 3 sub-regions: Inner Terai, Bhabar Terai and Main Terai. Each sub-region has its own type of ecosystem.

  • The main residents of mountainous region are Sherpa, Thakali, Manangi, and some other castes. And the main residents of Terai are Brahmins, Chhetri, Maithali, Rajbansi, Tharu and other casts.
  • The climate is very cold and snowfall occurs during winter in mountainous Region whereas in Terai, Climate is very hot.
  • People wear bakkhu, Docha, and other thick clothes in Mountainous region. But in Terai people wear shirt, Pants, Dhoti, Sari, Kurta Suruwal and other thin clothes.
  • In mountainous region, house is constructed by using stones and mud with small doors and windows, but in Terai region, house are made by using cement, bamboo, wood, glass etc.
  • The main occupation of mountain region is livestock farming whereas agriculture, small business and industry are taken as different occupation of the people of Terai.

Terai region has extensive forest of sal, sisau, khayar, bamboo, peopal etc. The Bhabar region has thick forest. Tigers, leopards, rhino, elephants, deer, vulture, eagle, etc. are common in this forest. Fish, crocodiles are found in rivers, lakes and ponds. The four adverse effects on ecosystem of Terai Region are:

  • Forest Destruction
  • Effect of infrastructure development
  • Over use of chemical on farms
  • Industrial pollution

  1. Use of forest and its peotection: The density of population is high in this region. People here depend upon the forest materials and agricultural protection. They destroy forest for cultivation and settlement. The dense forest of Terai is being destroyed gradually which brings more probability of depletion of forest in near future. The awareness programme should be conducted to preserve forest. People should also participate in the plantation and conservation programmes.
  2. Use of land and its conservation: Agricultural activities are more in Terai region because of fertile land. The farmers use chemical fertilizer for more and better production. The fertility of land of Terai has begun to diminish due of flood, landslide and over encroachment of human activities.The use of chemical and fertilizer should be minimized, the soil erosion of the hill should be checked and people should be made aware about the land conservation to protect the land of the Terai region.
  3. Livestock farming: The livestock farming such as cattle and goat for milk, meat, manure and other purposes has also been done in this region. People take cattle in forest and pasture to graze. The forest and pasture are depleting due to overgrazing. Animals should not be allowed to graze freely because they destroy the young and valuable plants. Positive attitude towards conservation of ecosystem should be developed to protect the environment.

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  • The cause of deforestation is ______.

    high population pressure
    forest fire
    all the options are correct
    overgrazing of cattle
  • The cause of land degradation is ______.

    all the options are correct
    forest fire
    deforestation
    overgrazing of cattle
  • The full form of IMP is ______.

    International Pest Management
    Integrated Pest Management
    Irrirational Pest Management
    Integrated Private Management
  • Industries should be established ______.

    around local residence
    far from local residence
    all the options are correct
    near to local residence
  • Segregate means ______.

    attach
    unite
    combine
    dissociate
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