Altitude, climate and land topography determine the population distribution and other living beings. Human being is an integral part of eco-system. Physical and biological components are interrelated. Any activities of human being affect the ecosystem and the environment. Because of the human activities, ecosystem and environment are affected. So, the effects on ecosystem and environment are as follows: -
Local mobility, the opportunity of employment, the source of income etc. are rare in mountain region due to geographical remoteness. Because of these reasons, there is low effect of development construction and industrialisation on the ecosystem of this region:
The density of population is very less in this region. The life of the people is hard due to lack of facilities. Most of the people depend on forest and forest products for their survival. As a result, the forest deteriorates day by day due to over-exploitation.
The forest must be protected from destruction. The programme of afforestation, awareness generation, use of technology and other alternatives sources help to minimise and protect the forest. Local people should also involve in the forest conservation programme.
The fertility of the soil is very low in this region so agricultural production is very low. The land does yield enough in spite of the efforts of the people. They apply same crops in the same field for many years, which degrade the quality of the soil.
The land should be preserved through awareness programme to the people about the current condition of the field. Developing the habit of integrated and alternative crops in the land, encouraging the use of compost manure and using modern means and techniques in the field helps to conserve the land.
Most of the people of this region rear animals for milk, meat, trade, labour and other purposes. They allow their cattle in the forest and pasture to graze. The pasture and forest are limited. Overgrazing and encroachment may deplete the nature and natural resources. The local people should be made aware about the forest and pasture. They should be trained about conservation of forest and pasture.
Some effect of human activities, development, construction and modernization on hill ecosystem and their controlling measures are as follows.
Most of the land of this region is used for cultivation. People destroy forest to occupy the land. They have traditional methods for collecting raw materials and cutting trees. They allow their cattle to graze in the forest which destroys the young plants.
Afforestation, watershed conservation, wildlife conservation, reforestation etc. help to conserve the forest. Public awareness and wise collection of forest materials also help for forest conservation.
People of this region adapt different occupation like business, agriculture, service and so on but most of the people are engaged in agriculture. People use chemical fertiliser, insecticides, pesticides and herbicides for better production, which deplete the fertility of soil and quality of land.
The farmers should be motivated for using compost manure, modern methods of cultivation and terrace system of farming. Modern means, techniques and alternative income source help to protect the land of this region.
The people of this region rear animals for milk, meat, manure and other purposes. They also allow their cattle in the pasture and forest, which are limited. People should be aware about the harmful effects of overgrazing and importance of young plants.
Mountain region lies in the northern part of the country. This is the mountainous area that extends from east to west. It's altitude range from 4877 to 8848 meters above in sea level. It contains of a number of snow covered hills. The snow line is at the altitude of 5ooo meters in the east and 4ooo meters in the west. It includes about 15% of the land of the country. Its ecosystem differs with other region due to its altitude, structure of land, temperature and climate. The land and climate of this region above 4500 meters not favorable for the vegetation compared to other region due to the snowfall and coldness. Thus, the ecosystem of this region is valuable and that should be conserved for the protection of living beings.
The effects of livestock farming on the hilly regions are:
People of hilly region use land and conserve it in the following ways:
The Hilly Region of Nepal is rich in religious and cultural diversity. It hosts many ethnic community like Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Tamang, Mangar etc. Majority of people follow Hinduism and Buddhism rank second. Dashain, Tihar, Janai Purnima, Maghe Sangkranti, etc. are the main festivals celebrated by the people. Along with these festivals, people celebrate some local festivals too. Temples, gumbas, pati pauwas, rivers etc. represent the religious and cultural heritage there. Religious heritage like Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Budhanilkantha, Dakshinkali, Dolakha Bhimsen, Manakamana, etc. are among the famous religious shrines of this religion.
The major problems are: