Note on Factors Affecting Migration

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Migration is affected by various factors like age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, employment, etc.

Some of the factors affecting migration are as follows: -

Demographic factors

Age and sex are main demographic factors that affect the migration. They are described as follows: -

  1. Age: The younger and economically active group of people are the ones who mostly migrate from one place to another in search of opportunities. The people of these age group are easily adapted to the new environment. The young children and older age groups of people generally do not migrate.
  2. Sex : Men generally migrate to other places quite often though there are more women who migrate to husbands’ places after marriage. This is called social mobility. More women forcefully migrate to other places, sometimes unfortunately as sex workers. Sometimes, due to unfavorable security reasons, people have to migrate from their places.

Social factors

Social factors can be other factors that influence the migration. Social and political factors like marital status, political violence, facilities, and relatives are dealt here.

  1. Marital status: Due to marriage, women migrate to husband’s home place. Similarly, young unmarried women also migrate for the sake of job as they are energetic.

  2. Political violence: People do not like to stay where there are political violence and disturbance. They intend to go to the places with political peace and safe environment. The people of the hill are migrating towards Terai.

  3. Better facilities: People migrate to those places where they have better facilities of health services, educational services, transportation and communication and the life is easier.

Economic factors

Occupation is the main economic factor of migration. It is described as follows: -

Occupation: People have to leave their home and migrate to other places for a new occupation and employment purposes. Mostly people from remote areas come to industrial and urban areas in search of work. Similarly, people try their luck for employment opportunities in foreign countries.

Push and pull factors of migration

Push factors of migration are those factors that force an individual to leave the place of origin. They are the disadvantages of particular place or restrictions in the place in which people are living.

Some of the examples of push factors are as follows: -

  1. Lack of employment
  2. Lack of health, education and entertainment facilities
  3. Dissatisfaction with traditions, norms, and values
  4. Poverty and low standard of living
  5. Discrimination based on religion, ethnicity, politics, etc.
  6. Inadequate facilities for maintaining livelihood
  7. War, riots, violence and similar catastrophic events

Pull factors of migration are those factors that attract an individual in a new place. They are the advantages of the particular place or the benefits that attract the people.

Some of the examples of pull factors are as follows: -

  1. Better climatic condition
  2. Political stability
  3. Better social environment and cultural traditions
  4. Better economic possibilities
  5. Better employment opportunities
  6. Better facilities for education, health, etc.

Areas Affected by Migration

Migration refers to the movement of the people involving a change of residence from one place to another. The movement affects the structure, composition and the growth of population in a country. Migration is one of the important aspects in the study of population.

Migration affects both the place of origin and the place of destination on the various aspects such as environmental aspects, economic aspects, health and social aspects.

  1. Environmental aspects:

    Migration of people has the direct effect on both, the place of origin and the place of destination. Problems like settlement, over-exploitation of resources, and the pollution of different kinds will be visible. The forest resources are destroyed for various reasons. Forestlands are cleared for cultivation. The problems of flood, landslides, soil erosion, drought and climatic changes are the consequences of migration.

  2. Economic aspects:

    The consequence on the place of origin will be a loss of economically active groups of the population. There will be less competition for jobs and less pressure on supplies. The agricultural production will be reduced due to the lack of workers in the field. When agricultural production is reduced, problems of food and nutrition, starvation and even famine may result.

  3. Health and social aspect:

    The places of destination are normally those places where facilities are made available to a limited extent so as to fulfill the needs of the native dwellers. However, the places overcrowd with the constant flow of migrants, and facilities and other needs become insufficient. The environment pollutes with dirt and sewage. The sanitary conditions become unsafe. The air and drinking water pollutes. Thus, air and water-borne diseases spread in the form of several communicable diseases.

  • Migration is affected by various factors like age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, employment etc.
  • Age and sex are main demographic factors that affect the migration.
  • Men, generally, migrate to other places quite often though there are more women who migrate to husbands’ places after marriage. This is called social mobility.
  • People migrate to those places where they have better facilities of health services, educational services, transportation and communication and the life is easier.
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Very Short Questions

Migration is a form of geographic or spatial movement involving change of usual residence between clearly defined geographic units. Some change of residence are temporary and do not involve change in usual residence. These are usually excluded from migration. They include brief excursion for visiting vacation or business purpose, even across national boundaries. Other changes of residence although permanent but short distance movement and hence, are also excluded from migration.
The effects of migration in the place of destination are given below:

  • The scarcity of food
  • Increment of violence
  • Lack of employment opportunity
  • Environmental degradation
  • Increment of pollution
  • Problem of adjustment and assimilation

The effects of migration on environment are listed below:

  • The activities of deforestation occur to provide place for shelter and food for the people in the place of their destination.
  • The slope and marginal lands will be cultivated to produce more agricultural production. This process causes natural disasters.
  • Deforestation causes the natural calamities like flood, landslide, change in weather etc.
  • The natural resources, in the place of destination will be over- used and in the place of origin the natural resources will be under used. This causes the imbalance in natural resources.

Impacts on health and social sectors due to migration are listed below:

  • There may be efficiency of health service and facilities in the place of destination.
  • Residential areas of destination become crowded which causes pollution and spread of diseases.
  • Due to arrival of people of different places with different culture, their own culture in the place of destination may be destroyed.
  • Problem of unemployment will arise, which may cause crime, violence and so on.

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  • Age is the ______ factor that affects migration.

    social
    demographic
    socio-cultural
    economic
  • Political violence is the ______ factor that affects migration.

    social
    socio-cultural
    economic
    demographic
  • Occupation is the ______ factor that affects migration.

    demographic
    socio-cultural
    economic
    social
  • Marital status is the ______ factor that affects migration.

    social
    economic
    socio-cultural
    demographic
  • Those factors that force an individual to leave the place of origin are called ______.

    pull factors of migration
    push factors of migration
    throwing factors of migration
    dragging factors of migration
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