Note on Sources of Population Data

  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
  • Quiz

Population data are the indicators of the various information of population like birth, death, migration, age, sex, marital status, religion, literacy, language, occupation, etc. Such data help to formulate and implement the various policies and planning in a country. Economic, social, cultural and political development takes place on the basis of the data. Population data can be found from various sources.

On the basis of the nature of data, they can be classified into two groups as follows:

1. Primary sources : First- hand data which are collected by thecensus, vital registration, sample survey, administrative records, population register, etc are primary sources of population data.

2. Secondary sources : The data which are found from individual person, organizations, agencies, books, journals, magazines, annual reports, etc. are secondary sources of population data.

Among the various sources of population data on the basis of method, following are most frequently used resources: -

  1. Census
  2. Vital registration
  3. Sample surveys
  4. Administrative records

1. Census

Census is the main source of demographic data. UN (1970) defines census as “the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time to all persons in a country or in a well- delimited territory of a country”.

Methods of census

Census can be conducted on the basis of two methods:

  • De facto method : The method of thecensus which can be conducted on the basis of usual place of residence is called 'de facto method'. This type of census is conducted at night. Therefore, this type of census enumeration is called ‘one- night enumeration’. This type of census is possible in urban areas of countries with highly educated people.
  • De jure method : The method of thecensus which can be conducted on the basis of permanent place of residence is called de jure method. It is considered as more practical and scientific. It is also called ‘period enumeration’. This method is applied in Nepal. In Nepal, instead of taking acensus on the basis of permanent resident,a resident of 6 months and over is taken. Therefore, the method of census taking in Nepal is ‘modified de jure’.

Historical Development of census

The evidence of census was found to start in Bolivia in 4000 BC, China in 3000 BC , Egypt in 2500 BC, and in India during the period of Ashoka in 330 BC to 270 BC, which was for the purpose of tax collection. The modern census was started in 1665 AD in New France and Canada (Acadia). The USA started it in 1790 AD, Britain in 1801 AD and India in 1872 AD.

The first census carried out in Nepal in 1968 BS. After that every 10 years, the census was carried out. The census 2009/11 BS was said to be thescientific census of Nepal. Other censuses of Nepal were 2018 BS, 2028 BS, 2038 BS, 2048 BS, 2058 BS and the last one was 2068 BS. The last census 2068 BS was the 11th census of Nepal.

The censuses of all countries are almost similar because it contains all the lists recommended by UNO.

The following things are found to be included in the census list:

  • Geographical characteristics such as residence at the time of counting, usual residence, birthplace, duration of residence, place of work, etc.
  • Personal and household characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, religion, caste, literacy, mother tongue,the number of live births at birth, etc.
  • Economic characteristics such as occupation, employment status, themain source of livelihood, etc.

2. Vital Registration System (VRS)

Vital Registration System (VRS) is also known as Civil Registration System. In a simple sense, recording of birth and death is vital registration. In this system, various vital events like birth, death, marriage, divorce and migration are recorded. UN experts have defined vital registration as “a legal registration, statistical recording, and reporting of the occurrence of vital events which includes live birth, death, fetal death, miscarriage, divorce, annulment, legal separation and marriage”.

It was first started in England in the16th century. It was started in Nepal in 1st Baisakh 2034 BS in 10 districts. The coverage of the system was increased in 17 districts in 2035 BS, 34 districts in 2037 BS, 40 districts in 2038 BS and all 75 districts in 2047 BS. After 2050 BS, the Registrar’s office was shifted under the Ministry of Local Development. All VDC’s and Municipalities run this system locally in Nepal.

3. Sample survey

Sample survey is also another important source of population data. Complete national enumeration is conducted in the survey. Data are collected in only some selected household and population in order to infer the characteristics of theentire population. It can be defined as the process of collecting, compiling, evaluating and publishing demographic, social and economic data about the sampled population in order to infer the general behavior of theentire population of a place or a country in a given time period. The sample survey was started in England in the19th century. If it is conducted in regular interval of time, census operation is not needed. For example, census is not conducted in Afghanistan.

The sample survey has the following operational processes:

  • Determination of objectives
  • Determination of samples and methodology
  • Questionnaire design
  • Training and pre-testing of tools
  • Finalization of tool
  • Collection of data
  • Editing and coding
  • Data entry into computer and processing
  • Tabulation and analysis
  • Publication of final reports

4. Administrative records

These are the information on population collected by different administrative authorities. Useful and necessary data are kept as a record in different offices.

Some of the administrative records are as follows:-

  • List of citizenship
  • Telephone directory
  • Voter’s list
  • Taxpayer’s list
  • List of electricity consumers
  • List of school students, etc.

  • Population data are the indicators of the various information of population like birth, death, migration, age, sex, marital status, religion, literacy, language, occupation, etc.
  • First hand data which are collected by census, vital registration, sample survey, administrative records, population register, etc are primary sources of population data.
  • Census is the main source of demographic data.
  • Vital Registration System (VRS) is also known as Civil Registration System.
  • Vital Registration System was first started in England in 16th century.
.

Very Short Questions

The indices that are taken on the basis of various aspects of population such as birth, death, migration, gender, marital status, religion, casts etc. are known as population statistics. These are obtained from two main sources: primary sources and secondary sources.

  • Primary sources: Under this category, sources of direct information fall. These include census, vital registration, sample survey, administration record etc.
  • Secondary sources: Under this category fall various sources such as individual, organization, books, magazines, periodicals research report. These sources provide secondary information, the ones already studied and recorded for various purposes.

The official counting of all people in a certain country carried out at set intervals is known as census. Census is the main source of population statistics. There are two main methods of census:

  • De-facto method: In this method officials visit door to door and take the data from individual response so that everyone is recorded from where he/she is at that time of census.
  • De-jure method: This method is based on permanent settlement of the respondents. Everyone is recorded not accordingly to the place of his/ her current settlement but according to their permanent settlement. In Nepal we use this method of census.

A census A sample survey
This is counting of whole population within a certain time frame This is counting of a small portion of a population.
This is the most comprehensive and detailed form of population counting. This is a small and limited form of population counting.
It is lengthy and costly. Its quick and economical.
It is held with long time intervals. It is held with short time interval.

0%
  • The indicators of the various information of population like birth, death, migration, age, sex, marital status, religion, literacy, language, occupation, etc. are called ______.

    community data
    population data
    social data
    racial data
  • First hand data which are collected by census, vital registration, sample survey, administrative records, population register, etc. are ______.

    tertiary sources of population data
    low level sources of population data
    secondary sources of population data
    primary sources of population data
  • The total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining at a specified time to all persons in a country or in a well delimited territory of a country is called ______.

    vital registration
    census
    administrative records
    sample survey
  • The first census carried out in Nepal in ______.

    2069 BS
    1968 BS
    1998 BS
    1971 BS
  • De facto method is also called ______.

    two nights enumeration
    one day enumeration
    one week enumeration
    one night enumeration
  • You scored /5


    Take test again

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

You must login to reply

Forum Time Replies Report
saleh saidu musa

Ask any queries on this note. non traditional source


You must login to reply


You must login to reply

Bikram

Long question Why vital registration system considered more effective in collecting population data?


You must login to reply

Smriti maharjan

What is administrative records?


You must login to reply