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Note on Nervous System

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http://i.imgur.com/aT548rU.gif

The nervous system is a very complex system when compared with other systems. We read, write, sleep, think, smell, feel, see, hear, become happy and sad, etc. All these are possible due to the nervous system. It is made of special tissues known as nervous tissues. Nervous tissues are made of a neuron. Some neuron carries impulses from tissues to the brain and some carry impulses from the brain to the tissues. Nervous system is divided into 3 main parts, they are:

  1. Central Nervous system
  2. Peripheral Nervous system
  3. Autonomic Nervous system

Central Nervous system

It is also divided into two main parts, they are:

  1. Brain
  2. Spinal cord

Brain

The brain is the main part of the central nervous system which is safely enclosed in the skull. The brain sends the message to organs and tissues and receives impulses from them. It consists of different parts, they are:

  • http://i.imgur.com/eIWVxnS.gifCerebrum: The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain. This enables us accomplish the sympathy, to sense, to an image, to think, to remember, to smell, to taste, to touch and to feel.
  • Cerebellum: The cerebellum is responsible for the coordination of muscle action to maintain the body structure. It is situated behind the pons Varolii and beneath the posterior portion of the cerebellum.
  • Midbrain: The brain is situated between the cerebrum and the pons Varolii. It consists of nerve cells and nerve fibers which connect the cerebrum with lower parts of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Pons Varolii: The pons Varolii is situated in front of the cerebellum, below the midbrain and above the medulla oblongata. It conveys the sensations and impulses between the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Medulla Oblongata: Medulla Oblongata relays the impulses and messages between the upper brain and spinal cord. It has a cardiac center, the respiratory center, coughing and sneezing center.

Spinal cord

The spinal cord is the next organ of the central nervous system. It lies inside the vertebral Column. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves coming out from the spinal cord and they are spread to different part of our body. It is the main center for reflex action.

Its functions are:

  1. It is the center of the reflex action.
  2. It communicates between the brain and all the parts of the body.

Peripheral Nervous system

http://i.imgur.com/O0T9XQW.jpgThere are 12 pairs of nerves coming out from the brain and 31 pairs of nerves are coming out from spinal cord function under a peripheral nervous system. Among these some carry impulses from the brain to organs or some carry impulses from organs to the brain, among these some nerves do both functions as mixed nerves.

Autonomic Nervous system:

The nervous system in our body that function without our conscience is known as an autonomic nervous system. It is divided into two nervous system, they are:

  1. Sympathetic Nervous system: A part of the nervous system that serves to accelerate the heart rate, constrict blood vessels, and raise blood pressure.
  2. Parasympathetic Nervous system: A part of the nervous system that serves to decrease the bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure etc. is called parasympathetic nervous system. The function of these two nerves is opposite to each other.For example, sympathetic Nervous system dilates pupil whereas parasympathetic nervous system constricts the pupil.

  • Nervous system is divided into 3 main parts, they are; Central Nervous system, Peripheral Nervous system and Autonomic Nervous system.
  • Cerebellum is responsible for the coordination of muscle action to maintain the body structure.
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Very Short Questions

The function of cerebrum are:

  1. It controls muscles for movement.
  2. It helps in mental co-ordination.
  3. It helps in sensory perceptions.

The functions of the spinal cord are:

  1. It is the center of the reflex action.
  2. It communicates between the brain and all part of the body.

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  • Which of the following is not the part of the brain?

    Cerebrum
    Foramen magnum
    Brain stem
    Cerebellum
  • Which of the following is known as the longest part of the brain?

    Medulla Oblongata
    Brain stem
    Cerebrum
    Cerebellum
  • Which statement is true for cerebellum?

    It is responsible for ordinary sensations.
    It helps to conduct different types of motor actions of muscles.
    It controls the functions of other parts of the brain.
    It maintains equlibrium and controls the posture of the body.
  • Which statement is false for cerebrum?

    It makes body movement smooth, steady and co-ordinated.


    It is the center of intelligence, memory, imagination and emotions.


    It controls the functions of other parts of the brain.


    It is responsible for ordinary sensations.


  • ______ receives an integrate signals from spinal cord and sends resulting impulses to cerebrum and cerebellum.

    Medulla Oblongata


    Cerebellum


    Cerebrum


    None of above


  • ______ includes the nerves that arise from the brain and spinal cord.

    Autonomic Nervous System


    All answers are correct


    Central Nervous System


    Pheripheral Nervous System


  • Which of the following is a part of the peripheral nervous system?

    Brain
    sensory pathway
    All of above
    Different glands
  • The function of spinal cord is ______.

    to connect the organ system with the brain


    to control the motion of the body.


    to break down food to be used by the body.


    to remove wastes from the body


  • Which of them consist of a chain of ganglia?

    Autonomic Nervous System
    Central Nervous System
    Pheripheral Nervous System
    Spinal Cord
  • There are ______ pairs of spinal nerves.

    9


    15


    31


    12


  • The cells that transmit the message from one part of the body to other are known as ______.

    Neurons


    Spinal cord


    Dendrites


    Mixed nerves


  • Which of the following carry impulses from various parts of the body to the brain or spinal cord?

    Efferent nerves


    Mixed nerves


    Afferent nerves


    None of the options are correct


  • Which of the following is a long tube like structure that arises from neuron?

    All of above
    Cell body
    Axon
    Dendrites
  • ______ sends most of the impulses to the dendrites of another neuron.

    Nerve fibers


    Nucleus


    Neuron


    Axon


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