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Note on Reproductive System

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All the organism produce their own kind. Male and female organism are needed for reproduction. There are two kinds of reproductive system, they are:

  1. Female reproductive system
  2. Male reproductive system.

Female reproductive system

It is made of different organs, they are:

  1. Fallopian tube
  2. Uterus
  3. Cervix
  4. Vagina
  5. Ovaries

There is an ovary each at the left and right sides of the uterus. They produce ova, and hormones like estrogen and progesterone. These hormones help to develop the reproductive system. Just over of each ovary there lies a fallopian tube. Through these tubes the ovum, produced by the ovary, makes its way to the uterus. The uterus lies in front of the urinary bladder. In it, the fertilized ovum grows and develops. Once the women are pregnant, the fetus grows and so does the size of the uterus. Below the uterus lies vagina through which the birth of the child takes place.

Function of the Ovaries, Fallopian tube, Uterus, and Vagina

  1. Ovaries: Ovaries are two small glands located on either side of the uterus. They produce ova and two hormones called estrogen and progesterone. Each ovary produces and releases ovum every month alternatively. Ovulation occurs in women between the ages of 13 to 49 years.
  2. Fallopian tube: Fallopian tubes are two tubes extending from each side of the uterus. They are about 10 cm long and have finger-like projections at the end called fimbriae. It helps to pass the ovum produced by the ovary to the uterus.
  3. Uterus: The uterus is a hollow, thick-walled muscular pear-shaped organ lying in the pelvic cavity. It provides the environment for the growth of a fetus. It has three regions: upper bulged part called fundus, middle body and lower, opening, called cervix. It helps the fertilized ovum to grow in it.
  4. Vagina: The vagina is the muscular tube about 8 to 10 cm long. It receives the seminal fluid containing spermatozoa discharged from the penis during copulation. It also works as opening for the childbirth. It is the way through which the birth of the child takes place.

Menstruation

It is a natural process in a female. In female starting from puberty to about 45 years, the process of a periodic flow of blood from the vagina occurs, this is called menstruation. Normally menstruation occurs in every 28 days. An ovum is produced by one of the ovaries lying on the side of the uterus. If fertilization does not take place, then the ovum passes into the uterus and dies. Then the layer of tissue, at the wall of the uterus, breaks. Then the blood flows out of the vagina along with ovum and degenerated tissue. This way menstruation occurs. This condition remains there for one to 5-6 days. After this, the inner layer of the uterus starts thickening again. After 6-7 days of menstruation, with the help of hormone, the blood capillaries and the layer of the mucous gets thicker on the wall of the uterus. Thickening of the wall of the uterus helps in fertilization of ovum and its growth.

http://i.imgur.com/CfJtUpZ.gif

Male reproductive organ

Following are the main organs in the male reproductive organs:

  1. Testes
  2. Epididymis
  3. Vas deferens
  4. Seminal vesicle
  5. Ejaculatory duct
  6. Prostate gland
  7. Urinary bladder
  8. Urethra
  9. Penis

1. Testes:
There is a pair of testes in the male body enclosed in the scrotal sac. Testes produce spermatozoa and a hormone called testosterone. The hormone helps in the development of sex organs and secondary sexual characteristics.

2. Epididymis:
It is a long narrow tube extensively coiled up behind the testes. Through this tube, the sperms pass from testes to the vas deferens.

3. Vas deferens:
It is a small thick-walled tube which extends from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles. It serves to transmit the seminal fluid and sperms to the seminal vesicle. During Vasectomy, the vas deferens is cut and sealed.

4. Seminal Vesicles:
The seminal vesicles are two small pouches at the posterior region of the urinary bladder. They act as the reservoir for seminal fluid and spermatozoa. They secrete a viscous fluid called semen, which provides nutrients for sperms.

5. Ejaculatory Duct:
The ejaculatory ducts are tubes about 2 cm long, formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle. They open into the urethra.

6. Prostate gland:
This gland surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder. This is why when it increases in size, it feels difficult to urinate. The main function of the prostate is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance.

7. Urinary bladder:
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal through urination.

8. Urethra:
The urethra provides a common pathway for the flow of urine and semen. It ends in the external orifice of the glans penis.

9. Penis:
The penis is the male copulatory organ. It has three parts: glands, body, and root. There are two testes in male genital. They produce spermatozoa for reproduction and testosterone, the hormone. The hormone plays an important role in development and maturation of reproductive system of men. There are spermatic cords in coiled position above the testes known as epididymis. Spermatozoa float on it and flows towards ejaculatory duct. There are two seminal vesicle behind the duct that lies at left and right. They produce semen. Sperms get nourishment and energy through this semen.

  • Ovary produce ova, and  hormones like estrogen and progesterone.
  • In female starting from puberty to about 45 years, the process of a periodic flow of blood from vagina occurs,which is called menstruation.
  • The main organs in the male reproductive organs are Testes, Epididymis, Vas deferens, Seminal vesicle, Penis, Ejaculatory duct, Urethra.
.

Very Short Questions

Female reproductive consists of various organs.They are described below;

  1. Ovaries: Ovaries are two small glands located on either sideof the uterus.They produce ova and hormones named estrogen and progesterone.Each ovary produces and releases ovum every month alternately.
  2. Fallopian tubes: Fallopian tubes are two tubes extending from each side of the uterus.They are about 10 cm long.They transfer ovum from ovaries to the uterus.
  3. Uterus: It is a hollow,thick-walled muscular pear-shaped organ lying in the pelvic cavity.It has three regions named as funds, middle body and cervix.
  4. Vagina: The vagina is a muscular tube about 8 to 10 cm long.It receives the seminal fluid containing spermatozoa discharged from the penis during copulation.

Various male reproductive organs are described below:

  • Testes: Male body consists of a pair of testes enclosed in the scrotal sac.It produces spermatozoa and a hormone called testosterone.
  • Epididymis: It is a long narrow tube extensively coiled up behind the testes.With the help of this tube, sperms pass from testes to the vas deferens.
  • Vas Deferens: It is a small thick-walled tube which extends from the epididymis to the seminal vesicle.It transmits the seminal fluid and sperms to the seminal vesicle.
  • Seminal Vesicles: The seminal vesicles are two small pouches at the posterior of the urinary bladder.It acts as reservoir for seminal fluid and spermatozoa.
  • Ejaculatory ducts: The ejaculatory ducts are two tubes about 2 cm long, formed by union of the duct from the seminal vesicle.
  • Urethra: The urethra provides a common pathway for the flow of urine and semen.
  • Penis: It is the male copulatory organ.It consists of three parts that are glans, body and root.

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  • Which of these is a part of female reproductive system?

    Fallopian tube
    Testes
    Vas deferens
    Epididymis
  • The female gonad is called ______.

    cervix


    vagina


    ovaries


    uterus


  • The final target of reproductive system is to _________.

    fertilize ovum and growth.
    create a healthy offspring
    produce ovum.
    pass the ovum produced by the ovary
  • Which of these is not the part of male reproductive system?

    Vas deferens
    Epididymis
    Testes
    Fallopian tube
  • Which of these is the part of male reproductive system?

    Epididymis
    Cervix
    Vagina
    Ovaries
  • The final product of male reproductive system is _______.

    Spermatozoa
    spermatopoia
    spermocytes
    spermatocytes
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