Genetic engineering deals with the detailed knowledge of gene, its molecular structure and nature as well the ability to manipulate cells of higher plants or animals to the different vector DNA. In this technique DNA of species in inserted into the DNA of vector such as plasmid, cosmid, virus, etc. In this technology terms such as “gene surgery”, “gene manipulation”, “gene therapy”, “gene transplantation”, etc. commonly used.
Genetic engineering has brought a great revolution in the sector of agriculture. This technique has brought different improvement in the plants which are able to good in both quality and quantity. This technique is able to produce different plants which are diseases resistant, has all the required nutrients, resistance to fungal, bacteria and virus. This technique has done great work in the field of medical science too.
Genetic engineering has done a great improvement in the field of agriculture. With the help of genetic engineering new plants with better quality and quantity can be produced. New and virus free plants can be produce with the help of genetic engineering. Some other applications of the genetic engineering are describe below:
It is the process of creating the exactly the same or carbon copy of the single parents. A clone is defined as the offspring which is exactly same copy of the single parent. In simple word it the copy paste of the single parent. Or the offspring obtained artificially by the growing the cell or the different parts of the parent. Monizygotic, identical twins are cloned in case of the human beings. Dolly sheep is most re-known example of the cloning.
Types of cloning
Genetic engineering has many advantages. However on the process of gene manipulation is result worth or harmful one. Some of its disadvantages have been are discussed below:
To over view or to observe the problems created by the genetic engineering, in 1976 the US National Institute of Health (NIH) established an advisory committee. It mostly work for the evaluation of the potential of the biological and ecological hazards of the recombinant DNA molecules.
Genetic engineering has great scope in the present world. Some of its area of recent development are described below:
In 1990, the human genome an international project was started with the objectives of mapping the different types of chromosomes. Prof. Watson was the first person to headed this project. This project was about the preparation of a separate geenetic linkage map and a physical map of the different cheomosomes. It is believed that there are 30,000 genes in human genome and about 200 genes are assigned at each chromosome. Every person has different chromosomes which can be recognized by distinctive banding pattern of each chromosome. Some of the objectives of this project are as follows:
The branch of genetics which deals with the study of the organisms in terms of gemones . Genomics is defined as the branch of genetics which deals with study of the genome mapping, gene sequencing and gene functions. Genome also can be defined as “the total number of genes contained in one haploid set of chromosome of a diploid organism.” There are 100 millions cells in human body and over 260different types. Human DNA consists of 23 pairs of different chromosome. Extra DNA present in the mitochondria is transfer from the mother’s chromosome.
DNA fingerprinting is the technique which can identify the relationship among the persons with the patterns of DNA fragments obtained in restriction analysis of human DNA. In 984 this technique was developed by the British genetist Alec Jeffreys. The DNA fingerprints of every person in the world is different from each other.
Transgenic organisms are those organisms which contain a DNA segment from different species. These sorts of animals or plants are made artificially using genetic engineering. So, they are also called genetically engineered organisms. Scientists have created many different transgenic plants and animals. Some of them are mentioned below:
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1. cloning is the process of creating the exactly the same or carbon copy of the single parents.
2. Prof. Watson was the first person to headed Human Genome Project.
3. There are 100 millions cells in human body and over 260different types. Human DNA consists of 23 pairs of different chromosome.
4. Gene therapy means the technique of replacing the defected gen by the normal gene.
5. In 984 this technique was developed by the British genetist Alec Jeffreys..