Note on Industrial Gases and Climate Change

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Those gases which are released from the chemicals of various industries are called industrial gases. Commonly it contains carbon-di-oxide, carbon-mono-oxides mono-oxides of nitrogen. These gases are the principal source of atmospheric pollution,greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. Sulphurdioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gases related to them are also released from industries. These gases react with ozone layer and gives sulphur trioxide. Dust, smoke released from industries cause air pollution. They hinder muscular functioning. It affects mental functioning as well.

 

 

Acid rain
Acid rain

Acid rain

When the various gases like CO2, SO2, NO2, combine with rain water then their respective acids will be produces. These acids will react on the ground along with rain water in the cocktail form. This process is called acid rain. In the atmosphere these gases react with water vapour and formed their corresponding acids like H2CO3, H2SO4, and others. When rainfall occurs these acids get mixed with rain and forms acid rain.

 

Effect of acid rain

Fig: damaged by acid rain
Fig: damaged by acid rain
  1. The acidity of soil increases which cause the reduction of productivity of soil.
  2. The acidity of water bodies increases which cause the decline in population of aquatic organism.
  3. The historical monuments damages because of acid rain.
 

Effects of industrial gases

  1. Many of the gases left by industries are greenhouse gases and they cause global warming.
  2. These gases form photochemical smog which causes eye itching and negative effect on plant growth. The smog reduces the transparency of atmosphere and it creates a problem for pilots to land planes
  3. Some of the gases left by industries also cause ozone layer depletion.
  4. The materials given off by industries show an adverse effect on human health.

Climate Change  

The variation of the earth’s global or regional climate over a long period of time either because of natural variability as normal changes or because of the result of human induced activities is said to climate change. As we have already learned about the climate change, its causes and its effects on biodiversity previously, we are going to study about the international and national practices to mitigate and adapt the climate change.

Some indications of climate change in Nepal

Major Impacts

Observed Changes

Weather and Climate

1.  Weather of the hilly region is becoming like the weather of the     plain terai region.

2. Spring season is starting early.

3. Hotter weather, less snow, less rainfall in last 10 years.

4. Less and shorter duration of cold during winter.

5. Irregular rainfall.

6. Naked rocks are seen at the high peaks of mountains.

Biological Impacts

1. The seasonable foods and fruits are grown early.

2. Plants bear less fruits with poor quality taste due to warmer climate.

3. Mosquitoes are seen at higher altitudes as well.

4. Rhododendron blossoms earlier than before.

5. The reproduction is taking place earlier than before.

6. Many fish species are in the phase of extinction.


Mitigation and Adaption of Climate Change

We are unable to stop the climate change but it can be minimized. The process of minimizing the effect of climate change is called mitigation. It helps to improve the environment. Adaptation is to adjust in the changing climate. There are many measures that can be adopted to adjust in the new environment.

Some of the major international and national practices that have been adapted for mitigating and adaptation of climate change are discussed below:

International Practices

  1. Earth Summit I was held in 1992 AD at Rio de Jenerio of Brazil by UNFCCC [United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change]. The conference was mainly concentrated on the five main issues: Global Warming, Forest Protection, Biodiversity, Agenda 21, and Rio declaration.
  2. Earth Summit II was held at New York of USA in June 1997 AD which is also known as plus five conference. In December 1997 AD Kyoto protocol was declared, which was brought in action in 2005 AD only. It targeted to reduce the emission of CO2 at the rate of 5.2% between 2008 to 2012 AD only. It also established clean development fund for those nations who do appreciative activities of climate change.
  3. Inter Government Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) was also established in 2007 AD. It is a group of scientists of different countries who research, analyze and suggest the measures of mitigation and adaptation of climate change.
  4. Paris Agreement 2015 AD is an important step to mitigate and adapt climate change in the following ways:
    - Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2⁰C above pre- industrial level and to peruse efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5⁰C above pre- industrial level.
    - Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change that does not threaten the food production.
    - Making finance flow consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient development.

National Practices

  1. In 2008 AD Ministry of Education (MoE) was separated from the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology.
  2. In 2009 AD Climate Change Council was established in the chairmanship of honorable Prime Minister of Nepal.
  3. The council agreed to establish Climate Change Management Division in the Ministry of Environment.
  4. The Government of Nepal formed the Multi- stakeholder Climate Change Initiatives Coordination Committee (MCCICC) in 2010 AD.
  5. In 2010, the broad stakeholder approach was initiated by the NAPA (National Adaptation Plan of Action) process. In the NAPA, the following integrated projects have been identified as the urgent and immediate national adaptation priority.
    - Promoting community- based adaptation, through integrated management of agriculture, water, forest and biodiversity sector.
    - Building and enhancing adaptive capacities of vulnerable communities through improved system and access to services related to agriculture development.
    - Community based disaster management for facilitating climate adaptation.
    - GLOF monitoring and disaster rise reduction and forest and ecosystem management for supporting climate led adaptation innovations.
    - Adapting to climate challenge in public health and ecosystem management for climate adaptation.
    - Empowering vulnerable communities through sustainable management of water resources and clean energy support and promoting climate smart urban settlement.
  6. Under the provision of national level policy, Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) national framework was devised out by the government.
  7. Nepal has made policies related to the environmental improvement in:
    * Fifth Five – Year Planning (1975 – 1980)
    * Sixth Five- Year Planning (1980 – 1985)
    * Seventh Five- Year Planning (1985 – 1990)
    * Eighth Five- Year Planning (1990 – 1995)
    * Ninth Five- Year Planning (1997 - 2002)
    * Tenth Five- Year Planning (2002 - 2007)
    In Three- Year interim plan (2010/11, and 2012/13), measures for facing climate change were included.

Even though a lot of paper works are done about the mitigation and adaptation of climate change, the implementation process of the decisions is in a sluggish movement.

  1. Those gases which are released from the chemicals of various industries are called industrial gases.
  2. Industrial gases react with ozone layer and gives sulphur trioxide.
  3. Dust, smoke released from industries cause air pollution.
  4. Commonly, industrial gases contains carbon-dioxide, carbon mono-oxides and mono-oxides of nitrogen.
  5. Climate change or global warming is a burning universal issue.
  6. Climate change impacts are the threats to human well being.
  7. International and national practices are being made for the mitigation and adaptation of climate change.
  8. NAPA (National Adaptation Plan of Action) and LAPA (Local Adaptation Plan of Action) are the plans for the mitigation and adaptation of climate change in Nepal.
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Very Short Questions

Nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide gases are carried high into the air; they dissolve in water droplets in the clouds. The clouds may be carried many miles. They fall in the form of acid rain.

If the green-house gases were not found on the atmosphere, the heat would not be trapped on the earths surface. As a result the remperature of the earth would be much less. If the earth was very cold, it would be covered by ice and there wouldn't be the existance of life.

In the process of industrial production, different gases like oxides of carbon and oxides of sulphur are formed. In the atmosphere these gases react with water vapour and form their corresponding acids like H2SO4 etc. When the rain fall occurs, these acids get mixed with rain and forms acid rain.

Effect of increasing in carbondioxide gas in the atmossphere is as follows: Temperature increases: The green house effect is increased due to the increase in the amount of carbondioxide and the heat trapped on the surface of the earth will not return waway from the earth.

The stratosphere, where the amount of ozone is very thin and through which the harmful solar radiation can enter into the earth is called ozone hole.

0%
  • Which gas is not released from industries _______.

    oxygen
    mono-oxides of nitrogen
    carbon-mono-oxides
    carbon-di-oxide
  • Industrial gases are the principal source of ______.

    ozone layer depletion


    all of the answers are correct


    atmospheric pollution


    greenhouse effect


  • The historical monuments damages because of______.

    pollutions
    acid rain
    all of these
    carbon-mono-oxides
  • Which gas when combined with rain water produces acids?

    CO2


    All of the answers are correct


    SO2


    NO2


  • You scored /4


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Alina

What is industrial smog ?


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